1st Edition

Technologies for Converting Biomass to Useful Energy Combustion, Gasification, Pyrolysis, Torrefaction and Fermentation

Edited By Erik Dahlquist Copyright 2013
    520 Pages
    by CRC Press

    548 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Officially, the use of biomass for energy meets only 10-13% of the total global energy demand of 140 000 TWh per year. Still, thirty years ago the official figure was zero, as only traded biomass was included. While the actual production of biomass is in the range of 270 000 TWh per year, most of this is not used for energy purposes, and mostly it is not used very efficiently. Therefore, there is a need for new methods for converting biomass into refined products like chemicals, fuels, wood and paper products, heat, cooling and electric power. Obviously, some biomass is also used as food – our primary life necessity. The different types of conversion methods covered in this volume are biogas production, bio-ethanol production, torrefaction, pyrolysis, high temperature gasifi cation and combustion.

    This book covers the suitability of different methods for conversion of different types of biomass. Different versions of the conversion methods are presented – both existing methods and those being developed for the future. System optimization using modeling methods and simulation are analyzed to determine advantages and disadvantages of different solutions. Many international experts have contributed to provide an up-to-date view of the situation all over the world. These global perspectives and the inclusion of so much expertise of distinguished international researchers and professionals make this book unique.

    This book will prove useful and inspiring to professionals, engineers, researchers and students as well as to those working for different authorities and organizations.

    1. An overview of thermal biomass conversion technologies
    Erik Dahlquist

    2. Simulations of combustion and emissions characteristics of biomass-derived fuels
    Suresh K. Aggarwal
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Thermochemical conversion processes
    2.2.1 Direct biomass combustion
    2.2.2 Biomass pyrolysis
    2.2.3 Biomass gasification
    2.3 Syngas and biogas combustion and emissions
    2.3.1 Syngas combustion and emissions
    2.3.2 Non-premixed and partially premixed syngas flames
    2.3.3 High pressure and turbulent syngas flames
    2.3.4 Syngas combustion in practical devices
    2.4 Biogas combustion and emissions
    2.5 Concluding remarks

    3. Energy conversion through combustion of biomass including animal waste
    Kalyan Annamalai, Siva Sankar Thanapal, Ben Lawrence,Wei Chen, Aubrey Spear & John Sweeten
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Overview on energy conversion from animal wastes
    3.2.1 Manure source
    3.3 Biological conversion
    3.3.1 Digestion
    3.3.2 Fermentation
    3.4 Thermal energy conversion
    3.5 Fuel properties
    3.5.1 Proximate and ultimate analyses
    3.5.2 Empirical formula for heat values The higher heating value per unit mass of fuel The higher heat value per unit stoichiometric oxygen Heat value of volatile matter Volatile matter and stoichiometry Stoichiometric A:F Flue gas volume
    3.5.3 Fuel change and effect on CO2
    3.5.4 Air flow rate and multi-fuels firing
    3.5.5 CO2 and fuel substitution
    3.6 TGA studies on pyrolysis and ignition
    3.6.1 Pyrolysis
    3.7 Model
    3.7.1 Single reaction model: Conventional Arrhenius method
    3.7.2 Parallel Reaction Model (PRM)
    3.8 Chemical kinetics
    3.8.1 Activation energy from single reaction model
    3.8.2 Activation energies from parallel reaction model
    3.9 Ignition
    3.9.1 Ignition temperature
    3.10 Cofiring
    3.10.1 Experimental set up and procedure
    3.10.2 Experimental parameters
    3.10.3 O2 and equivalence ratio
    3.10.4 CO and CO2 emissions
    3.10.5 Burnt fraction
    3.10.6 NOx emissions
    3.10.7 Fuel nitrogen conversion efficiency
    3.11 Cofiring FB with coal
    3.11.1 NO emissions with longer reactor
    3.11.2 Effect of blend ratio
    3.12 Reburn
    3.13 Low NOx Burners (LNB)
    3.14 Gasification
    3.14.1 Experimental setup
    3.14.2 Experimentation
    3.14.3 Experimental procedure
    3.14.4 Results and discussion Fuel properties Experimental results and discussion Temperature profiles for air gasification Temperature profiles for enriched air gasification and CO2: O2 gasification Gas composition results with air Gas composition results with enriched air and CO2: O2 mixture HHV of gases and energy conversion efficiency
    3.15 Summary and conclusions

    4. Co-combustion coal and bioenergy and biomass gasification: Chinese experiences
    Changqing Dong & Xiaoying Hu
    4.1 Biomass resources in China
    4.1.1 Agricultural residues
    4.1.2 Livestock manure
    4.1.3 Municipal and industrial waste
    4.1.4 Wood processing remainders
    4.2 Co-combustion in China
    4.2.1 Introduction
    4.2.2 Methods and technologies
    4.2.3 Advantages and disadvantages
    4.2.4 Research status Different biomass for co-combustion Biomass gasification gas for co-combustion 1 Pollutant emissions from co-combustion The influence of solid biomass fuel The influence of biomass gasification gas
    4.2.5 The applications of co-combustion in China Chuang Municipality Lutang Sugar Factory Fengxian XinYuan Biomass CHP Thermo Power Co., Ltd Heilongjiang Jiansanjiang Heating and Power Plant Baoying Xiexin Biomass Power Co., Ltd
    4.2.6 Shiliquan power plant
    4.3 Biomass gasification in China
    4.3.1 Introduction
    4.3.2 Gasification technology development
    4.3.3 Biomass gasification gas as boiler fuel The feasibility of biomass gasification gas as fuel The superiority of biomass gasification gas as fuel
    4.3.4 Biomass gasification gas used for drying
    4.3.5 Biomass gasification power generation
    4.3.6 Biomass gasification for gas supply
    4.3.7 Hydrogen production from biomass gasification
    4.3.8 Biomass gasification polygeneration scheme
    4.3.9 Policy-oriented biomass gasification in China Guide public awareness Government investment in R&D of key technologies Fiscal incentives and market regulation measures
    4.4 Conclusions
    4.4.1 Co-combustion
    4.4.2 Gasification

    5. Biomass combustion and chemical looping for carbon capture and storage
    Umberto Desideri & Francesco Fantozzi
    5.1 Feedstock properties
    5.1.1 Biomass and biofuels definition and classification
    5.1.2 Biomass composition and analysis
    5.1.3 Biomass analysis Moisture content (EN 14774-2, 2009) Ash content (EN 14775, 2009) Volatile matter (EN 15148, 2009) Heating value (EN 14918, 2009) Carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen content (EN 15104, 2011) Density (EN 15103, 2010) Sulfur content analysis (EN 15289, 2011) Chlorine and fluorine content analysis (EN 15289, 2011) Chemical analysis (EN 15297, 2011 and EN 15290, 2011) Size (CEN/TS 15149-1:2006, CEN/TS 15149-2:2006, CEN/TS 15149-3:2006)
    5.2 Combustion basics
    5.2.1 Introduction
    5.2.2 Heating and drying
    5.2.3 Pyrolysis and devolatilization
    5.2.4 Char oxidation (glowing or smoldering combustion)
    5.2.5 Volatiles oxidation (flaming combustion)
    5.2.6 Combustion rates, flame temperature and efficiency
    5.3 Combustors
    5.3.1 Introduction to biomass combustion systems
    5.3.2 Fixed bed combustion Pile burners Grate burners
    5.3.3 Moving bed combustors Suspension burners Fluidized bed combustors
    5.3.4 Design and operation issues Design principles Deposit and slagging problems
    5.4 Chemical looping combustion
    5.4.1 Chemical looping processes
    5.4.2 Chemical looping reactions

    6. Biomass and black liquor gasification
    Klas Engvall, Truls Liliedahl & Erik Dahlquist
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Theory of gasification
    6.3 Operating conditions of importance for the product composition
    6.3.1 Fuel types and properties Biomass Black liquor Biomass properties of importance for gasification
    6.3.2 Gasifying agent
    6.3.3 Temperature
    6.4 Gasification systems
    6.4.1 Gasification technologies Fixed bed Updraft gasifiers Downdraft gasifers Cross-draft gasifers Fluidized bed gasifiers BFB and CFB reactors Dual fluidized bed reactors Entrained flow gasifier
    6.4.2 Gas cleaning and upgrading Tar and tar removal Thermal and catalytic tar decomposition Thermal processes for tar destruction Catalytic processes for tar destruction Dolomite catalysts Nickel catalysts Alkali metal catalysts Removal of other impurities found in the product gas Alkali metal compounds Fuel-bound nitrogen Sulfur Chlorine
    6.5 Gasification applications
    6.5.1 Biomass gasification BFB gasifier at Skive CortusWoodRoll gasification technology Güssing plant
    6.5.2 Black liquor gasification BL gasification using fluidized bed technology BL gasification using entrained flow technology
    6.6 Modelling of gasification systems
    6.6.1 Material and energy balance models An empirical model for fluidized bed gasification
    6.6.2 Kinetic models
    6.6.3 Equilibrium models Simulations using an equilibrium model compared to experimental data
    6.7 Outlook
    6.7.1 Biomass gasification
    6.7.2 Black liquor gasification

    7. Biomass conversion through torrefaction
    Anders Nordin, Linda Pommer, Martin Nordwaeger & Ingemar Olofsson
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Torrefaction history
    7.2.1 Origin of torrefaction processes
    7.2.2 Modern torrefaction work (1980–)
    7.3 Torrefaction process
    7.3.1 Energy and mass balances
    7.3.2 Solid product characteristics Elemental compositional changes Heating value and volatile content Friability, grinding energy and powder characteristics Feeding characteristics Hydrophobic properties and fungal durability Molecular composition and changes
    7.3.3 Gases produced Permanent gases Condensable gases
    7.4 Subsequent refinement processes
    7.4.1 Washing
    7.4.2 Densification Pelleting Briquetting
    7.5 Torrefaction technologies
    7.5.1 General
    7.5.2 Technologies under development or demonstration
    7.5.3 Status of the present production plants erected
    7.6 End-use experience
    7.7 System analyses and process integration
    7.7.1 Importance of total supply chain analysis
    7.7.2 Process and system integration
    7.8 Economic aspects of torrefaction systems
    7.8.1 Investment and operating costs
    7.8.2 Costs versus total supply chain savings
    7.9 Outlook

    8. Biomass pyrolysis for energy and fuels production
    Efthymios Kantarelis, Weihong Yang & Wlodzimierz Blasiak
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Technologies
    8.2.1 Biomass reception and storage
    8.2.2 Fast pyrolysis reactors Bubbling fluidized beds Circulating fluidized bed reactors Rotating cone reactors
    8.2.3 Char separation
    8.2.4 Liquid recovery
    8.3 Products and applications
    8.3.1 Char
    8.3.2 Bio-oil Composition and properties Homogeneity Water content Viscosity/rheological properties Acidity Heating value Stability Health and safety Other important properties Bio-oil applications Heat and power Gasoline and diesel fuels
    8.4 Modeling
    8.4.1 One step models
    8.4.2 Models with competing parallel reactions Models with secondary reactions
    8.5 Recent trends and developments
    8.6 Conclusions

    9. Solid-state ethanol production from biomass
    Shi-Zhong Li
    9.1 Introduction
    9.1.1 The history of SSF
    9.2 The principle of SSF
    9.2.1 Microorganisms in SSF
    9.2.2 The substrate in SSF The source of the substrate The character of the substrate The water content of the substrate The solid-phase properties of substance
    9.3 The process of SSF
    9.3.1 The characteristics of SSF Cell growth and measurement of products Sterile control
    9.3.2 The effective factors of SSF Carbon and nitrogen sources Temperature and heat transfer Moisture and water activity Ventilation and mass transfer pH value
    9.3.3 SSF reactors Static SSF reactor Dynamic SSF reactor Rotary drum SSF reactor and modeling progress
    9.4 Progress of SSF research
    9.5 Application of SSF in biomass energy fields
    9.5.1 Sweet sorghum stalk liquid fermentation technology
    9.5.2 Sweet sorghum stalk SSF technology
    9.5.3 The prospect of SSF Basic theory for research SSF reactor design and scale-up The SSF process and product contamination control

    10. Optimization of biogas processes: European experiences
    Anna Behrendt, S. Drescher-Hartung & Thorsten Ahrens
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Substrates for biogas processes and specialities
    10.2.1 Available substrate streams for biogas processes, composition and organic amounts Water and organic matter concentration Requirements for pretreatment including sorting and sanitation
    10.2.2 Biogas potentials and energy output Identification of biogas potentials Biogas potential results and energy output Comparison of energy outputs through biogas and combustion of material
    10.2.3 Conclusion: Can energy from waste compete with energy from renewable products?
    10.3 Current biogas technologies and challenges
    10.3.1 Biogas fermenter technology Dry digestion application – Examples of biogas plants in Germany Plug flow fermenter Tower fermenter Garage fermenter Wet digestion applications System example Use of residual waste Laboratory scale technology Plug flow fermenter Garage fermenter
    10.3.2 Regional implementation of fermenter technology One European example: Conditions in Estonia (Kiili Vald) The waste management situation in Kiili Vald The waste management situation in Germany
    10.4 Future prospects and individual regional energy solutions
    10.4.1 Central and local biogas plants Individual farm plant Biogas parks
    10.4.2 Biogas use
    10.5 Questions for discussions
    11. Biogas – sustainable energy solutions in Nigeria
    Adeola Ijeoma Eleri
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Review of Nigeria’s current energy situation
    11.3 Biogas technology in Nigeria
    11.3.1 Technical characteristics of biogas digester
    11.3.2 Mechanisms of methanogenesis
    11.4 Potentials of biogas technology for sustainable development
    11.5 Barriers to biogas technology
    11.6 Recommendations for scaling up biogas technology in Nigeria
    11.7 Conclusions

    12. The influence of biodegradability on the anaerobic conversion of biomass into bioenergy
    Rodrigo A. Labatut
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Theoretical aspects and assessment of substrate biodegradability
    12.3 Factors limiting substrate biodegradability
    12.3.1 Bioenergetics: Cell synthesis vs. metabolic energy
    12.3.2 Polymer complexity Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids
    12.3.3 Inhibition of biochemical reactions
    12.4 Biodegradability of complex, particulate influents: Co-digestion studies
    12.4.1 The effect of substrate composition on fD and Bo: BMP studies
    12.4.2 Implications of influent biodegradability on anaerobic digestion systems
    12.5 Conclusions

    13. Pellet and briquette production
    Torbjörn A. Lestander
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Standardization of solid biofuels
    13.3 Feedstock for densification
    13.3.1 Raw materials
    13.3.2 Biomass has orthotropic mechanical properties
    13.4 Pretreatment before densification
    13.4.1 Grinding
    13.4.2 Pre-heating (e.g. steam addition)
    13.4.3 Steam explosion
    13.4.4 Ammonia fiber expansion
    13.4.5 Drying
    13.4.6 Torrefaction
    13.5 Densification techniques
    13.6 Mechanisms of bonding
    13.7 Health and safety aspects when handling pellets and briquettes
    13.8 Conclusion
    13.9 Questions for discussion

    14. Dynamic modeling and simulation of power plants with biomass as a fuel
    Yrjö Majanne
    14.1 Introduction
    14.1.1 Use of biomass as an energy source
    14.1.2 Modeling of biomass combustion
    14.2 Simulation in power plant design and operation
    14.2.1 Simulation tools
    14.2.2 Simulator requirements
    14.3 Biomass as a fuel
    14.4 Biomass-fired power plants
    14.4.1 Grate combustion
    14.4.2 Fluidized bed combustion Bubbling fluidized bed combustion Circulating fluidized bed combustion
    14.5 Modelling of biomass combustion
    14.5.1 Thermodynamic properties Thermal conductivity Specific heat Heat of formation Heat of reaction Ignition temperature
    14.5.2 Combustion process Drying and ignition Pyrolysis and combustion of volatile components Combustion of remaining charcoal
    14.6 Conclusions
    14.7 Questions for discussions

    15. Optimal use of bioenergy by advanced modeling and control
    Bernt Lie & Erik Dahlquist
    15.1 Current and future work in bioenergy system automation
    15.2 Overview of processes
    15.2.1 Biomass
    15.2.2 Thermochemical processes
    15.2.3 Biochemical processes Fermentation Anaerobic digestion Biochemical processing
    15.2.4 Characterization of processes
    15.3 Process information
    15.3.1 Sensors and instrumentation
    15.3.2 Modeling and process description Mechanistic models Models and model error Empirical models Model building and model simulation
    15.3.3 Monitoring and fault detection
    15.4 Process operation
    15.4.1 Control and maintenance
    15.4.2 Management and integration into product grids
    15.5 Diagnostics and control using on-line physical simulation models
    15.5.1 Introduction
    15.5.2 Approach description
    15.5.3 Boiler
    15.5.4 Other energy conversion processes
    15.5.5 Model validation and results
    15.5.6 Discussion
    15.6 Conclusions and questions for discussion

    16. Energy and exergy analyses of power generation systems using biomass and coal co-firing
    Marc A. Rosen, Bale V. Reddy & Shoaib Mehmood
    16.1 Introduction
    16.2 Background
    16.2.1 Co-firing and its advantages
    16.2.2 Global status of co-firing
    16.2.3 Properties of biomass and coal
    16.2.4 Technology options for co-firing Direct co-firing Parallel co-firing Indirect co-firing
    16.3 Relevant studies on co-firing
    16.3.1 Co-firing studies
    16.3.2 Experimental studies
    16.3.3 Modeling and simulation studies
    16.3.4 Energy and exergy analyses
    16.3.5 Economic studies
    16.4 Characterstics of biomass fuels and coals
    16.5 Co-firing system configurations
    16.6 Thermodynamic modeling, simulation and analysis of co-firing systems
    16.6.1 Approach and methodology
    16.6.2 Assumptions and data
    16.6.3 Governing equations Analysis of boiler Analysis of high pressure turbine Analysis of low pressure turbine Analysis of condenser Analysis of condensate pump Analysis of boiler feed pump Analysis of open feed water heater
    16.6.4 Boiler and overall energy and exergy efficiencies
    16.7 Effect of biomass co-firing on coal power generation systems
    16.7.1 Effect of co-firing on overall system performance
    16.7.2 Effect of co-firing on energy and exergy losses Effect of co-firing on furnace exit gas temperature Effect of co-firing on energy losses and external exergy losses Effect of co-firing on irreversibilities
    16.7.3 Effect of co-firing on efficiencies Boiler energy efficiency Plant energy efficiency Boiler exergy efficiency Plant exergy efficiency
    16.7.4 Effect of co-firing on emissions Energy-based CO2 emission factors Energy-based NOx emission factors Energy-based SOx emission factors
    16.8 Conclusions
    16.9 Questions for discussions

    17. Control of bioconversion processes
    K.P. Madhavan & Sharad Bhartiya
    17.1 Introduction
    17.2 Process dynamics
    17.2.1 Physico-chemical models Single vessel continuous digester for wood pulping A physico-chemical model for the pulp digester
    17.3 Approximate models to capture essential dynamics
    17.3.1 Single capacity element: first order system
    17.3.2 Second order system
    17.3.3 Dynamics of higher order processes
    17.3.4 Pure time delay processes
    17.3.5 Control relevant models for process control systems design
    17.3.6 Linear system identification: single-vessel digester case study
    17.3.7 Discrete-time models for sampled data system
    17.3.8 Discrete-time models for nonlinear processes
    17.4 Basic strategies for control
    17.4.1 Single feedback loop control
    17.4.2 Internal model control structure
    17.4.3 PI control of lower heater Kappa and blowline Kappa number
    17.4.4 Single-loop control with disturbance compensation Input disturbances: cascade control Output disturbances: feedforward–feedback control
    17.4.5 Feedback control with time delay compensation: the Smith predictor
    17.4.6 Single loop control with nonlinear compensation
    17.5 Unit-wide or multivariable control
    17.5.1 Decentralized approach Measures of multivariable interaction: relative gain array (RGA) Interaction analysis for the single vessel digester
    17.6 Multiple single loop control using interaction compensators: Decoupler design
    17.6.1 Decoupler design for single vessel digester
    17.7 Model predictive control: A multivariable control strategy
    17.7.1 Linear model predictive control for the single vessel digester
    17.7.2 Control results and discussion
    17.8 Real-time optimization
    17.9 Concluding remarks
    17.10 Questions for discussion

    Subject index


    Erik Dahlquist, Professor Energy Technology at Malardalen University, Sweden. Focus on Biomass utilization and Process efficiency improvements. PhD 1991 at KTH. He started working at ASEA Research 1975 as engineer with nuclear power, trouble shooting of electrical equipments and manufacturing processes. In 1982 he switched to energy technology related to the pulp and paper industry. Was technical project manager for development of Cross Flow Membrane filter leading to the formation of ABB Membrane filtration. The filter is now a commercial product at Finnish Metso. 1989: project leader for ABBs Black Liquor Gasification project. 1992: Department manager for Combustion and Process Industry Technology at ABB Corporate Research, also member of the board of directors for ABB Corporate Research in Vasteras. 1996- 2002: General Manger for the Product Responsible Unit Pulp Applications world wide within ABB Automation Systems. 2000-2002 part time professor at MDU, responsible for research in Environmental, Energy and Resource Optimization. Deputy dean and dean faculty of Natural Science and Technology 2001-2007. Member of the board of Swedish Thermal Engineering Research Institute division for Process Control systems since 1999. Receiver of ABB Corporate Research Award 1989. Deputy member board of Eurosim since 2009. Member of editorial board for Journal of Applied Energy (Elsevier) since 2007. 21 patents. Approximatly 170 Scientific publications in refereed Journals or conference proceedings with referee procedure. Author of several books.