Technology Innovation in Underground Construction: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Technology Innovation in Underground Construction

1st Edition

Edited by Gernot Beer

CRC Press

528 pages

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9780415551052
pub: 2009-10-16
SAVE ~$27.75
$185.00
$157.25
x
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429176456
pub: 2009-10-16
from $28.98


FREE Standard Shipping!

Description

This richly-illustrated reference guide presents innovative techniques focused on reducing time, cost and risk in the construction and maintenance of underground facilities:

A primary focus of the technological development in underground engineering is to ease the practical execution and to reduce time, cost and risk in the construction and maintenance of underground facilities such as tunnels and caverns. This can be realized by new design tools for designers, by instant data access for engineers, by virtual prototyping and training for manufacturers, and by robotic devices for maintenance and repair for operators and many more advances.

This volume presents the latest technological innovations in underground design, construction, and operation, and comprehensively discusses developments in ground improvement, simulation, process integration, safety, monitoring, environmental impact, equipment, boring and cutting, personnel training, materials, robotics and more. These new features are the result of a big research project on underground engineering, which has involved many players in the discipline.

Written in an accessible style and with a focus on applied engineering, this book is aimed at a readership of engineers, consultants, contractors, operators, researchers, manufacturers, suppliers and clients in the underground engineering business. It may moreover be used as educational material for advanced courses in tunnelling and underground construction.

Reviews

This book contains the results of one of the largest research projects on tunnels and underground openings carried out in the European Community and aims at introducing innovative design tools and new technical procedures in tunnelling engineering. Edited by Prof. Gernot Beer, one the leading authorities in the development and application of computer oriented methods in rock/soil engineering, it presents 24 contributions of leading experts in the field. Contributions span from new information systems and computer supported methods for tunnel design, to the visual representation of the progress of excavation; from software for the numerical simulation of mechanized and conventional tunnelling methods, and for monitoring of the displacements induced by tunnelling, to software for controlling the advancing process of tunnel boring machines. Other chapters concern technological problems, such as the use ofshotcrete and of low pressure injections, the optimization of rock cutting tools, the robotic inspection of tunnels, etc. The large spectrum and depth of topics covered, and their impact on the tunnel design and construction, makes this book of particular interest for practicing engineers and for applied researchers. Giancarlo Gioda, Professor of Geotechnical Engineering, Dept. of Structural Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Italy

"[…] the project will certainly result in a breakthrough in activities ranging from planning to maintenance. Contributions cover the whole spectrum of underground construction activities with an integrated approach." Tarcisio B. Celestino, University of Sao Paulo

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

  • 1.1 Motivation
  • 1.2 Problems
  • 1.3 Vision
  • 1.3.1 Design
  • 1.3.2 Processes
  • 1.3.3 Equipment and materials
  • 1.3.4 Maintenance an repair
  • 1.4 Contents of the book

2. UCIS – Underground construction information system

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 UCIS – Underground construction information system
  • 2.2.1 Objectives
  • 2.2.2 Architecture
  • 2.2.3 Design and development
  • 2.2.4 Data model
  • 2.2.5 3D ground model
  • 2.3 Introduction
  • 2.4 Contribution to the overall project
  • 2.5 Workflow
  • 2.6 Geometrical data: software implementation
  • 2.7 Geological & geomechanical attributes: classification
  • 2.8 Geological & geotechnical database
  • 2.9 Data link geometrical data – geological/ geotechnical objects
  • 2.10 Subsurface models
  • 2.10.1 UCIS – Applications
  • 2.11 KRONOS – tunnel information system
  • 2.12 KRONOS-WEB – monitoring data reporting and alarming system
  • 2.13 Decision support system for cyclic tunnelling
  • 2.14 Web-based information system on underground construction projects
  • 2.15 Virtual reality visualisation system
  • 2.16 Summary

3. Computer-support for the design of underground structures

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 State-of-the-art in tunnel design
  • 3.3 The applied design concept
  • 3.3.1 Design method
  • 3.3.2 Analysis of the possible degree of automation
  • 3.3.3 Automation concept
  • 3.4 Rule base for tunnel pre-design
  • 3.4.1 Determination of the ground behaviour
  • 3.4.2 Determination of suitable excavation methods and support measures
  • 3.5 Key input parameters
  • 3.6 Support classes
  • 3.7 Energy classes
  • 3.8 Excavation methods
  • 3.9 Refinement for shield tunneling
  • 3.9.1 General workflow embedded in the rule base
  • 3.9.2 Determination of time and costs
  • 3.10 Integrated optimization platform for underground construction
  • 3.10.1 Realization/implementation
  • 3.11 Graphical user interface
  • 3.12 3D-Ground model
  • 3.13 Rule base
  • 3.14 Numerical simulation software
  • 3.14.1 Background information and software technology
  • 3.15 Summary

4. A virtual reality visualisation system for underground construction

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.1.1 Virtual reality
  • 4.1.2 Augmented reality
  • 4.1.3 Mixed reality
  • 4.1.4 Capacity of today’s VR-, AR- and MR-systems
  • 4.2 A Virtual reality visualisation system for underground construction
  • 4.2.1 Objective
  • 4.2.2 Input data
  • 4.2.3 VR software
  • 4.2.4 VR hardware
  • 4.2.5 Application example
  • 4.3 Summary
  • 4.4 Outlook, augmented reality in tunnelling

5. From laboratory, geological and TBM data to input parameters for simulation models

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 A hierarchical, relational and web-driven Rock Mechanics Database
  • 5.2.1 Introduction
  • 5.2.2 Test data reduction methodology
  • 5.2.3 A failure criterion for rocks
  • 5.2.4 Example calibration of lab test rock parameters to model parameters of the HMC constitutive model (Level-B of analysis)
  • 5.2.5 Structure of the rock mechanics database
  • 5.3 Geometrical and geostatistical discretization of geological solids
  • 5.3.1 Introduction
  • 5.3.2 Solid modeling
  • 5.3.3 Geostatistical modeling
  • 5.4 A special upscaling theory of rock mass parameters
  • 5.4.1 Introduction
  • 5.4.2 A special upscaling theory for rock masses
  • 5.4.3 Illustrative upscaling example
  • 5.5 Back-analysis of tbm logged data
  • 5.5.1 Introduction
  • 5.5.2 Basic relationships
  • 5.5.3 An example of backward analysis
  • 5.6 Conclusions

6. Process-oriented numerical simulation of mechanised tunnelling

  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.1.1 Requirements for computational models for mechanised tunnel construction
  • 6.1.2 Novel computational framework for process-oriented simulations in mechanised tunnelling as part of an integrated decision support system
  • 6.2 Three-phase model for partially saturated soil
  • 6.2.1 Theory of porous media
  • 6.2.2 Governing balance equations
  • 6.2.3 Constitutive relations for hydraulic behaviour
  • 6.2.4 Stress-strain behaviour of soil skeleton
  • 6.3 Finite element formulation of the multiphase model for soft soils
  • 6.3.1 Spatial and temporal discretization
  • 6.3.2 Object-oriented implementation
  • 6.4 Selection of soil models and parameters
  • 6.4.1 Saturated soil model
  • 6.4.2 Unsaturated soil model
  • 6.4.3 Cemented soil model
  • 6.4.4 Double hardening soil model
  • 6.5 Verification of the three-phase model for soft soils
  • 6.5.1 Consolidation test
  • 6.5.2 Drying test
  • 6.6 Components of the finite element model for mechanised tunnelling
  • 6.6.1 Heading face support
  • 6.6.2 Frictional contact between TBM and soil
  • 6.6.3 Tail void grouting
  • 6.6.4 Shield machine, hydraulic jacks, lining and backup trailer
  • 6.7 Model generation and simulation procedure
  • 6.7.1 Automatic model generation
  • 6.7.2 Mesh adaption for TBM advance and steering of shield machine
  • 6.7.3 Interface to IOPT
  • 6.7.4 Parallelisation concept
  • 6.8 Sensitivity analysis and parameter identification
  • 6.8.1 Numerical approximation of sensitivity terms
  • 6.8.2 Analytical sensitivities derived by the direct differentiation method
  • 6.8.3 Adjoint method for deriving analytical sensitivities
  • 6.8.4 Implementation of analytical sensitivity methods
  • 6.8.5 Optimisation of process parameters
  • 6.8.6 Inverse analyses for estimation of unknown parameters
  • 6.8.7 Current state and outlook for further developments in sensitivity analyses
  • 6.9 Selected applications of the simulation model for mechanised tunnelling
  • 6.9.1 Numerical simulation of compressed air support
  • 6.9.2 Numerical simulation of changing pressure conditions at the heading face
  • 6.9.3 Numerical simulation of the Mas Blau section of L9 of Metro Barcelona
  • 6.10 Conclusions

7. Computer simulation of conventional construction

  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 A new simulation paradigm
  • 7.3 Preprocessor
  • 7.4 The boundary element method
  • 7.4.1 Sequential excavation
  • 7.5 Example – sequential tunnel excavation
  • 7.5.1 Non-linear material behavior
  • 7.6 Non-linear BEM
  • 7.7 The non-linear solution algorithm
  • 7.8 Hierarchical constitutive model
  • 7.9 Example
  • 7.9.1 Heterogeneous ground and ground improvement methods
  • 7.10 Introduction
  • 7.11 Consideration of geological conditions
  • 7.12 Pipe roofs
  • 7.13 Examples
  • 7.13.1 Rock bolts
  • 7.14 Introduction
  • 7.15 Fully grouted rock bolts
  • 7.16 Discrete anchored bolts
  • 7.17 Examples
  • 7.17.1 Shotcrete and steel arches
  • 7.18 Introduction
  • 7.19 Shotcrete as an assembly of shell finite elements
  • 7.20 Steel arches as an assembly of beam finite elements
  • 7.21 Optimization of code and adaptation to special hardware
  • 7.21.1 Computational complexity
  • 7.21.2 Iterative solvers
  • 7.21.3 Fast methods
  • 7.21.4 Modern hardware – parallelization
  • 7.22 Practical application
  • 7.22.1 The koralm tunnel

8. Optical fiber sensing cable for underground settlement monitoring during tunneling

  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.1.1 Tunnel construction with tunnel boring machines
  • 8.1.2 Risk associated to tunneling in urban areas
  • 8.1.3 State of the art
  • 8.1.4 Research frame
  • 8.1.5 Settlement to be measured
  • 8.1.6 Developed solutions
  • 8.2 Sensors based on deformation of optical fibres
  • 8.2.1 General principles
  • 8.2.2 Brillouin technology
  • 8.2.3 Fiber embedded at the periphery of a cable or a tube
  • 8.2.4 Cable environment
  • 8.2.5 Development of an industrial process
  • 8.3 Sensing element
  • 8.4 15 mm diameter cable
  • 8.5 150 mm diameter cable
  • 8.6 Sensors based on slope measurement
  • 8.7 Sensor validation
  • 8.7.1 Geometric validation in open air
  • 8.8 Bench test
  • 8.9 Optical fiber validation
  • 8.10 TBMSET validation
  • 8.10.1 Geometric validation in buried material – cairo tests
  • 8.11 Presentation of cairo project
  • 8.12 Test area
  • 8.13 Settlement gauges network
  • 8.14 Installation of the test area
  • 8.15 On site data acquisition from sensing elements
  • 8.16 Job site data
  • 8.17 Settlement gauges
  • 8.18 Validation of pipe behavior inside the ground
  • 8.19 Impact of grout injection on the settlement
  • 8.20 Optical fiber results
  • 8.21 TBMSET results
  • 8.22 Conclusion

9. Tunnel seismic exploration and its validation based on data from TBM control and observed geology

  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Seismic exploration during tunneling
  • 9.2.1 Challenges
  • 9.2.2 Finite-difference simulations of seismic data
  • 9.3 Description of the discrete model
  • 9.4 Modeling results
  • 9.4.1 Short outline of seismic data processing
  • 9.5 Pre-processing
  • 9.6 Migration and velocity analysis
  • 9.7 Use of TBM data and geology for seismic data validation
  • 9.8 Conclusions

10. Advances in the steering of Tunnel Boring Machines

  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.1.1 Motivation
  • 10.1.2 Solution concept
  • 10.2 Analysis of relevant steering parameters
  • 10.2.1 TBM control and monitoring systems – state of the art
  • 10.3 Systems for subsidence monitoring
  • 10.4 Monitoring systems for geodetic survey of the machine position and orientation
  • 10.5 Steering system for the control parameters of the tunnelling machine
  • 10.5.1 Induced surface deformations and control parameters during shield drive
  • 10.6 Subsidence in front of the cutter head (advanced subsidence)
  • 10.7 Subsidence in the area of the shield
  • 10.8 Subsidence associated with annular gap grouting
  • 10.9 Subsidence after hardening of the annular gap mortar (subsequent subsidence)
  • 10.9.1 Expert rules for subsidence control
  • 10.10 Steering system
  • 10.10.1 Requirements
  • 10.10.2 Solution concept and system architecture
  • 10.10.3 Fuzzy logic expert system and reasoning
  • 10.11 Rules
  • 10.12 Fuzzy logic data evaluation
  • 10.12.1 Software system developed
  • 10.12.2 verification and validation
  • 10.13 Incident management system
  • 10.13.1 General
  • 10.13.2 Causes for incidents
  • 10.14 Geology and hydrology
  • 10.15 Shield machine
  • 10.16 Operation errors
  • 10.16.1 Development of the incident catalogue
  • 10.16.2 Description of the incident management system
  • 10.16.3 Showcase example in detail
  • 10.16.4 Automated detection of incidents
  • 10.17 Conclusion

11. Real-time geological mapping of the front face

  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 State of the art
  • 11.3 Technological solution
  • 11.3.1 Objectives
  • 11.3.2 Specifications
  • 11.3.3 Technological choices
  • 11.4 Disc cutter and housing
  • 11.5 Overall description
  • 11.6 Monitored parameters
  • 11.7 Disc cutter modeling
  • 11.8 Mobydic monitoring
  • 11.9 Applications
  • 11.9.1 Lock ma shau tunnel
  • 11.9.2 A41
  • 11.10 Conclusion

12. Reducing the environmental impact of tunnel boring (OSCAR)

  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 State of the art
  • 12.2.1 Historical context
  • 12.2.2 Tunnel construction with tunnel boring machine
  • 12.2.3 Soil conditioning for EPB machine
  • 12.3 Research project description
  • 12.3.1 Objective
  • 12.3.2 The overall objective of these tests isto define the specific additive properties versus specific situations, e.g. soil, confinement pressure, soil permeability, and to develop adapted foams. A computer program has been written for the right selection the foam dosage. Selected tests
  • 12.4 Oscar reactor
  • 12.4.1 OSCAR general view
  • 12.4.2 The reactor
  • 12.4.3 Screw conveyor
  • 12.4.4 Baroïd water loss filter (Garcia, IFP)
  • 12.4.5 Direct output
  • 12.4.6 Foam production (Fig. 11)
  • 12.5 Test results
  • 12.5.1 Soil
  • 12.6 Soil types
  • 12.7 Clay
  • 12.8 Silt
  • 12.9 Sand
  • 12.10 Mixed soil
  • 12.11 Soil with gypsum content
  • 12.12 Soil conditioning
  • 12.12.1 Additives
  • 12.13 Surfactants
  • 12.14 Foam design rules
  • 12.15 Specifications of foams
  • 12.16 Polymers
  • 12.17 Other additives
  • 12.18 Specification of foams
  • 12.19 Input required and calculation of foam parameters
  • 12.20 Atmospheric tests
  • 12.21 Hyperbaric Tests
  • 12.22 Foam dosage computation
  • 12.23 Proposed draft standard
  • 12.23.1 Ground sampling
  • 12.23.2 Cutter head sealant
  • 12.23.3 Soil conditioning test
  • 12.24 Step 1: Atmospheric tests
  • 12.25 Step 2: Atmospheric tests
  • 12.26 Step 3: Pressurized tests
  • 12.27 Conclusion

13. Safety assessment during construction of shotcrete tunnel shells using micromechanical material models

  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Modeling cementitious materials in the framework of continuum micromechanics
  • 13.2.1 Fundamentals of micromechanics – Representative volume element (RVE)
  • 13.2.2 Micromechanical representation of cementitious materials
  • 13.2.3 Elasticity and strength of cementitious materials
  • 13.3 Morphological representation of hydration products in cement paste
  • 13.4 Strength of cement paste
  • 13.5 Strength of shotcrete
  • 13.6 Experimental validation of micromechanics-based material models
  • 13.6.1 Mixture-dependent shotcrete composition
  • 13.6.2 Experimental validation on cement paste level
  • 13.6.3 Experimental validation on shotcrete level
  • 13.7 Micromechanics-based characterization of shotcrete: Influence of water-cement and aggregate-cement ratios on elasticity and strength evolutions
  • 13.8 Continuum micromechanics-based safety assessment of natm tunnel shells
  • 13.8.1 Water-cement ratio-dependence of structural safety
  • 13.8.2 Aggregate-cement ratio-dependence of structural safety
  • 13.9 Conclusions

14. Observed segment behaviour during tunnel advance

  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Organization of the chapter
  • 14.3 Forces on the EPB machine
  • 14.3.1 Excavation mode
  • 14.3.2 Ring mounting mode
  • 14.4 Eccentricity of the Jack’s total thrust
  • 14.5 Backfill mortar injection pressures
  • 14.6 Study of several cases
  • 14.6.1 Collection and treatment of data
  • 14.6.2 Geological considerations
  • 14.6.3 Comparison between theoretical and EPB machine registered thrusts
  • 14.6.4 Registered eccentricities
  • 14.6.5 Tests to measure the pressure on the segments using pressure sensors
  • 14.7 Conclusions
  • 14.7.1 Definition of the forces acting on the EPB machine.
  • 14.7.2 Effects of the eccentricity of the resultant of thrusting forces
  • 14.7.3 Distribution of the backfill mortar pressures

15. Optimizing rock cutting through computer simulation

  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Tool–rock interaction
  • 15.3 Wear of rock cutting tools
  • 15.4 Thermomechanical model of rock cutting
  • 15.5 Wear model
  • 15.6 Determination of rock model parameters
  • 15.7 Simulation of rock cutting laboratory test
  • 15.8 Simulation of rock cutting with wear evaluation
  • 15.9 3D simulation of the laboratory test of rock cutting
  • 15.10 Simulation of the linear cutting test
  • 15.11 Conclusions

16. Innovative roadheader technology for safe and economic tunnelling

  • 16.1 Roadheaders – state of the art
  • 16.1.1 Tunneling with roadheaders
  • 16.1.2 The principle of roadheader operation
  • 16.1.3 Roadheader components
  • 16.2 Overview
  • 16.3 Cutter head, picks
  • 16.3.1 Roadheader application
  • 16.3.2 Roadheader selection
  • 16.4 Rock parameters
  • 16.5 Profile size – mode of application
  • 16.6 One-step face excavation
  • 16.7 Multi-step excavation of larger sections
  • 16.8 Application in difficult ground conditions
  • 16.8.1 Application example: Mont Cenis Tunnel/France–Italy
  • 16.8.2 Application example: Metro Montreal Project, Lot C 04/Canada
  • 16.9 The new roadheader generation – features and benefits
  • 16.9.1 New technology
  • 16.9.2 Integrated guidance system
  • 16.10 Introduction
  • 16.11 System principle
  • 16.11.1 Improved sandvik cutting technology
  • 16.12 Introduction
  • 16.13 Pick-rock interaction
  • 16.14 Numerical simulation
  • 16.15 Outlook

17. Tube-à-manchette installation using horizontal directional drilling for soil grouting

  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 development of an articulated double packer
  • 17.3 development of a blocking system for the sealing grout
  • 17.4 design of the test
  • 17.5 test development
  • 17.5.1 Phase 1: Initial works
  • 17.5.2 Phase 2: Horizontal directional drilling
  • 17.5.3 Phase 3: Steel casing installation
  • 17.5.4 Phase 4: Steel casing extraction
  • 17.5.5 Phase 5: Injection of the grout bag
  • 17.5.6 Phase 6: Annular sheath grouting
  • 17.5.7 Phase 8: Ground injection
  • 17.6 Summary

18. TBM technology for large to very large tunnel profiles

  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.2 Two mixshields for the railway tunnel access route to the brenner base tunnel
  • 18.3 Two double shielded hard rock TBMs for the Brisbane North South Bypass Tunnel (NSBT)
  • 18.4 Trend of very large diameter tunnel profiles
  • 18.4.1 Largest earth pressure balance shield (Ø15.2M) used for the M30 road tunnel project in Madrid
  • 18.4.2 Largest mixshield (Ø15.4 m) used for the Changjiang under river tunnel project in Shanghai
  • 18.5 Tunconstruct activities

19. Real-time monitoring of the shotcreting process

  • 19.1 Introduction
  • 19.2 Monitoring the shotcreting process
  • 19.2.1 Pumping variables
  • 19.2.2 Spraying variables
  • 19.3 Final remarks

20. Environmentally friendly, customised sprayed concrete

  • 20.1 Introduction
  • 20.2 Performance-based approach
  • 20.3 Indicators chosen and their meanings
  • 20.3.1 Constituent materials and mix proportions
  • 20.3.2 Full scale sample preparation and tests conducted
  • 20.4 Advantages of the approach: selected results
  • 20.5 Final remarks and conclusions
  • 20.6 Abbreviations

21. Innovations in shotcrete mixes

  • 21.1 Introduction
  • 21.2 Innovations
  • 21.2.1 New components materials PB criterion
  • 21.2.2 New special superplasticizer and nozzle accelerator
  • 21.3 Special superplasticizer
  • 21.4 Nozzle accelerator
  • 21.4.1 New SM Automation of shotcrete machine
  • 21.4.2 New admixture dosing unit
  • 21.5 Shotcrete simplified mix design rules program
  • 21.5.1 MDR (Mix Design Rules)
  • 21.5.2 SMD (Shotcrete Mix design)
  • 21.5.3 RER Validation factor
  • 21.6 Summary

22. High performance and ultra high performance concrete segments – development and testing

  • 22.1 Introduction
  • 22.2 Development and laboratory testing
  • 22.2.1 Basic recipe development
  • 22.2.2 Derivation of design parameters and re-calculation
  • 22.2.3 Comparative calculations
  • 22.2.4 Checking of fire resistant behavior
  • 22.2.5 Testing of industrial segment production
  • 22.3 Real scale tests
  • 22.3.1 General
  • 22.3.2 Segment load bearing test
  • 22.4 General
  • 22.5 Test stand (Fig. 22.8)
  • 22.6 Measurement
  • 22.7 Conducting the segment load bearing test
  • 22.7.1 Diaphragm load test
  • 22.8 General
  • 22.9 Test stand (Fig. 22.12)
  • 22.10 Measurement
  • 22.11 Conducting the diaphragm load test
  • 22.11.1 Torsional rigidity test
  • 22.12 General
  • 22.13 Test stand (Fig. 22.14)
  • 22.14 Measurement
  • 22.15 Conducting the torsional rigidity test
  • 22.16 First test results
  • 22.17 Summary

23. Robotic tunnel inspection and repair

  • 23.1 Introduction
  • 23.2 Dragarita robot for fast inspection
  • 23.3 IRIS: Integrated robotic inspection and maintenance system
  • 23.3.1 Maintenance operations
  • 23.3.2 Integrated process automation
  • 23.3.3 Laboratory and field tests
  • 23.4 Conclusions

24. An innovative geotechnical characterization method for deep exploration

  • 24.1 Introduction
  • 24.2 Background
  • 24.3 Rock mass characterization with the stackable logging tools
  • 24.3.1 Field tests
  • 24.3.2 Rock quality estimation and borehole geophysical logging
  • 24.4 Summary and conclusions

About the Editor

Short professional biographies of all contributors are included in the back of the volume.

The editor, Gernot Beer (Graz University of Technology, Austria), is currently the head of the Institute for Structural Analysis at the University Technology, Graz Austria. His main expertise is numerical simulation and he heads a group of researchers that is developing the next generation software for the simulation of underground excavations. He has conducted research and has consulted on this topic for three decades and authored and co-authored four textbooks on this subject. Prior to coordinating the project TUNCONSTRUCT he was the coordinator of a national research initiative Simulation in Tunneling (SiTu) and of another European project (Virtual fire emergency simulation, VITRUALFIRES). The project SiTu resulted in a book “Numerical Simulation in Tunneling” published by Springer for which he was the editor. As part of his consulting activities he served, together with Prof. E.T. Brown, on a panel of experts for the investigation of the Masjed-e-Soleiman underground Hydroelectric Power Plant in Iran.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC005000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Construction / General
TEC009020
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Civil / General