The Analysis Of Drugs Of Abuse: An Instruction Manual : An Instruction Manual book cover
1st Edition

The Analysis Of Drugs Of Abuse: An Instruction Manual
An Instruction Manual




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ISBN 9780130350985
Published November 30, 1994 by CRC Press
182 Pages

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Book Description

Provides a self-teaching reference text for forensic chemistry laboratories and law enforcement agencies world-wide. The text includes sections on the importance of physical examinations of drugs and their wrappings; and the use of gas and high-performance chromatography.

Table of Contents

Preface

Acknowledgments

1 The drug chemist and forensic science

Introduction

Investigating the scene

Record keeping

General analytical considerations

Drug regulations, the legal process and report writing

References and further reading

2 Physical description of drugs of abuse

Introduction

Cannabis sativa L. and products

Whole plant

Hashish

Hash oil

The active constituents of Cannabis sativa

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)

Hallucinogens of fungal origin

Hallucinogens from cacti

The opiate drugs

Raw opium

Diamorphine

Coca leaf and cocaine

The amphetamines

Methaqualone and mecloqualone

Barbiturates

Benzodiazepines

Student exercises

Cannabis plant material

Cannabis resin

Drugs of fungal origin

Crude opium resin

Heroin based power

References

3 Presumptive tests for drugs of abuse

Introduction

Tests for common drugs of abuse

Cannabis and products

The Duquenois-Levine test

The Corinth test

Lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocybin and psilocin

Opiate drugs

The Marquis test

Mandelin test

Cocaine and products

Cobalt isothiocyanate

Mandelin reagent

Sodium hydroxide reagent

The amphetamines

The barbiturates

The benzodiazepines

The Zimmerman test

The Vitali-Morin test

Student exercises

Cannabis and its products

The opiate drugs

Cocaine and metabolites

Barbiturate drugs

References

4 Thin layer chromatography of drugs of abuse

Introduction

Spray reagents commonly used in drug analysis

Fast Blue B

Ehrlich’s reagent

Acidified potassium iodoplatinate reagent

Dragendorff reagent

Fast black K

Student exercises

Cannabis and its products

The opiate drugs

Cocaine and surrogates

Barbiturate drugs

References

5 Gas chromatography of drugs of abuse

Introduction

Interpretation of chromatographic data

Standard mixes

Retention time

Kovat’s indices

Quantification

Student exercises

Kovat’s indices and opiate drugs

Gas chromatography of opiate drugs using temperature programming

Gas chromatography of opiate drugs using derviatisation and temperature programming

Cannabinoids

Cocaine and surrogates

The barbiturate drugs

Benzodiazepines

References

6 High Performance liquid chromatography of drugs of abuse

Introduction

The separation process

Normal phase chromatography

Reversed phase chromatography

Ion suppression chromatography

Ion pairing systems and reversed phase chromatography

Gradient elution systems

Detector systems

Quantification of samples and preparation of calibration curves

Single point estimates

Two point calculation: Y = mX + c

Linear regression

Diode array detection

Student exercises

Normal phase chromatography

Analysis of opiate drugs

Quantification of diamorphine in an illicit sample of heroin

Reversed phase chromatography

Barbiturate drugs

Reversed phase chromatography and ion suppression – cannabinoids

Reversed phase chromatography – diode array detection

References

7 Ultra violet spectroscopy of drugs of abuse

Introduction

Recording of an ultra violet absorption spectrum

Drug identification

Drug quantification

Student exercises

8 Infra red spectroscopy of drugs of abuse

Introduction

Sample preparation

The gas phase

Solutions of samples

Nujol mulls

The solid phase

The thin film

The dispersive infra red spectrometer

Spectrum interpretation

The hydroxyl group

Amino, imine and amide groups

The C-H stretches and deformations

Double bond stretching

The carbonyl group

The fingerprint region

Interpretation of infra red spectra of some common drugs of abuse

The opiate drugs

Morphine

6-0-Monoacetylmorphine

Diamorphine

Codeine

Acetylcodeine

Methaqualone

Cocaine

The barbiturates

Amphetamines

Benzodiazepines, exemplified by Medazepam

Student exercises

Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy

Library searches

Microscopy and fourier transform infra red (FT-IR) spectrometry

References

9 Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy of drugs of abuse

Introduction

The gas chromatograph – mass spectrometer

Ionization techniques used in drugs analysis

Electron impact mass spectrometry

Chemical ionization mass spectroscopy

Fast atom bombardment

Advantages and disadvantages of mass spectroscopy

Data interpretation

Total ion chromatograms

Mass spectral data

Isotope peaks

Selected ion monitoring

Quantification using deuterated internal standards

Student exercises

Underivatised drugs

Opiate drugs

Cocaine and metabolites

Derivatised examples

Opiate drugs

Cannabinoid drugs

Drugs of particular interest

Quantification using deuterated internal standards

Student exercises: answers

Plate section between pp. 20 and pp. 21.

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