The Archaeology of Native North America: 2nd Edition (Paperback) book cover

The Archaeology of Native North America

2nd Edition

By Dean R. Snow, Nancy Gonlin, Peter E. Siegel

Routledge

306 pages

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Description

The Archaeology of Native North America presents the ideas, evidence, and debates regarding the initial peopling of the continent by mobile bands of hunters and gatherers and the cultural evolution of their many lines of descent over the ensuing millennia. The emergence of farming, urban centers, and complex political organization paralleled similar developments in other world areas. With the arrival of Europeans to North America and the inevitable clashes of culture, colonizers and colonists were forever changed, which is also represented in the archaeological heritage of the continent. Unlike others, this book includes Mesoamerica and the Caribbean, thus addressing broad regional interactions and the circulation of people, things, and ideas.

This edition incorporates results of new archaeological research since the publication of the first edition a decade earlier. Fifty-four new box features highlight selected archaeological sites, which are publicly accessible gateways into the study of North American archaeology. The features were authored by specialists with direct knowledge of the sites and their broad importance. Glossaries are provided at the end of every chapter to clarify specialized terminology.

The book is directed to upper-level undergraduate and graduate students taking survey courses in American archaeology, as well as other advanced readers. It is extensively illustrated and includes citations to sources with their own robust bibliographies, leading diligent readers deeper into the professional literature. The Archaeology of Native North America is the ideal text for courses in North American archaeology.

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1: Introduction

Archaeological Science

Coping with Incomplete Information

The Use and Misuse of Evidence

Mistakes and Fakes

Biological and Cultural Evolution

Basic Concepts for the Study of Cultural Evolution

Theoretical Approaches

North America and Human Potential

Calendric Conventions and Basic Terms

Oral Tradition

Art and Symbolism: Rock Art

Glossary

References

Chapter 2: Eurasian Origins

Geological Background

The Expansion of Early Humans

Environment and Adaptation

Genetic Evidence

The Evidence of Languages

The Evidence of Bones and Teeth

Demography and Conflict

Subsistence and Economy

Traveling Companions

Architecture and Technology

Resilience and Collapse

Glossary

References

Chapter 3: The Peopling of America

Environment and Adaptation

Demography and Conflict

Expansion Along the Pacific Coast

Expansion into the Interior

Architecture and Technology

Subsistence and Economy

The Great Extinction

Paleoindian Skeletal Evidence

Culture, Language, and Identity

Art and Symbolism

Resilience and Collapse

Glossary

References

Chapter 4: Archaic Cultures

Environment and Adaptation

Demography and Conflict

Managing Mobility

Subsistence and Economy

Centers of Plant Domestication

Architecture and Technology

Culture, Language, and Identity

Art and Symbolism

Resilience and Collapse

Glossary

References

Chapter 5: The Arctic and Subarctic

Arctic Environment and Adaptation

Northern Paleoindian and Paleo-Arctic

Northern Archaic and Related Adaptations

The Arctic Small Tool Tradition

Dorset, Kachemak, Norton, Choris, Ipiutak, and Old Bering Sea

Thule

Arctic Demography and Conflict

Arctic Subsistence and Economy

Arctic Architecture and Technology

Arctic Culture, Language, and Identity

Arctic Art and Symbolism

Arctic Resilience and Collapse

Subarctic Environment and Adaptation

Subarctic Demography and Conflict

Subarctic Subsistence and Economy

Subarctic Architecture and Technology

Subarctic Culture, Language, and Identity

Subarctic Art and Symbolism

Subarctic Resilience and Collapse

Glossary

References

Chapter 6: Moundbuilders of the Eastern Woodlands

Environment and Adaptation

Demography, Cooperation, and Conflict

Subsistence and Economy

Architecture and Technology

Adena Culture

Hopewell Culture

The Hopewell Trade Network

Culture, Language, and Identity

Art and Symbolism

Resilience and Collapse

Glossary

References

Chapter 7: The Mississippians

Environment and Adaptation

Demography and Conflict

Subsistence and Economy

Architecture and Technology

Culture, Language, and Identity

Regional Variants

Art and Symbolism

Resilience and Collapse

Glossary

References

Chapter 8: The Northeastern Forests

Environment and Adaptation

Demography and Conflict

Central and Eastern Algonquians

Northern Iroquoians

Subsistence and Economy

New England and the Maritime Provinces

Lower Great Lakes

Upper Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River

Architecture and Technology

Northern Iroquoians

Culture, Language, and Identity

Northern Iroquoians

Central and Eastern Algonquians

Art and Symbolism

Central and Eastern Algonquians

Northern Iroquoians

Resilience and Collapse

Glossary

References

Chapter 9: The Interior West

Environment and Adaptation

The Great Plains

The Great Basin

The Plateau

Demography and Conflict

The Great Plains

Plains Woodland Cultures

Plains Village Cultures

Middle Missouri Cultures

The Coalescent Tradition

The Great Basin

Fremont Culture

The Numic Expansion

The Plateau

The Horse Nomads

Subsistence and Economy

Architecture and Technology

Culture, Language, and Identity

Art and Symbolism

Resilience and Collapse

Glossary

References

Chapter 10: The Greater Southwest

Environment and Adaptation

Demography and Conflict

Subsistence and Economy

Architecture and Technology

Hohokam

Mogollon

Ancestral Pueblo

Culture, Language, and Identity

Language Families

The Chaco Phenomenon

Art and Symbolism

Mogollon

Ancestral Pueblo

Resilience and Collapse

Glossary

References

Chapter 11: The West Coast

Environment and Adaptation

Northwest Coast

California

Baja California

Demography and Conflict

Northwest Coast

California and Baja California

Subsistence and Economy

Architecture and Technology

Northwest Coast

Culture, Language, and Identity

Northwest Coast

California

California Tribelets

Chumash Culture

Art and Symbolism

Northwest Coast

California and Baja California

Resilience and Collapse

Glossary

References

Chapter 12: The Gulf Rim and the Caribbean Islands

Environment and Adaptation

The Gulf Coast

The Caribbean Islands

Demography and Conflict

Subsistence and Economy

Architecture and Technology

Early Mound Building

Troyville-Coles Creek Culture

Weeden Island–Fort Walton Cultures

Safety Harbor

Belle Glade

The Miami Circle

Pensacola Culture

The Antilles

Culture, Language, and Identity

Art and Symbolism

Resilience and Collapse

Glossary

References

Chapter 13: Mesoamerica

Environment and Adaptation

Highland Basin of Mexico

Highlands in Oaxaca, Mexico

The Gulf Lowlands

The Maya Lowlands

Demography and Conflict

The Olmecs: Complexity in the Formative

Monte Albán: From Formative to Classic Center

Maya City-States in the Lowlands

The Postclassic Toltecs

Rise of the Aztecs

Subsistence and Economy

Architecture and Technology

Olmec Centers

The Mexican Highlands

Teotihuacan

Monte Albán

Tula

West Mexico

Tenochtitlan

Culture, Language, and Identity

Classic Maya City-States

Tikal

Palenque

Copan

The Aztecs

Art and Symbolism

The Mesoamerican Ball Game

Olmec Art and Symbolism

Zapotec Art and Symbolism

Teotihuacan Art and Symbolism

Classic Maya Art and Symbolism

Maya Calendars

Aztec Art and Symbolism

Resilience and Collapse

The Classic Maya Collapse

Glossary

References

Chapter 14: Archaeology in the Modern World

Environment and Adaptation

Demography and Conflict

The Colonial Experience

Subsistence and Economy

Architecture and Technology

Culture, Language, and Identity

NAGPRA

Art and Symbolism

Resilience and Collapse

Modern American Indians

Archaeology and American Indians

Glossary

References

 

Index

About the Authors

Dean R. Snow is Professor Emeritus and former Head of the Department of Anthropology at The Pennsylvania State University, USA. His archaeological research interests are in Iroquoian and Algonquian ethnohistory, American historical archaeology, paleodemography, and rock art. He has conducted research projects in Mexico, northeastern North America, and Europe.

Nancy Gonlin is a Mesoamerican archaeologist who specializes in household archaeology, ritual and ideology, and archaeology of the night. She is a Professor of Anthropology at Bellevue College, Washington, USA. Her research and publications have centered on commoners in complex societies, whether working in Mexico, El Salvador, or Honduras.

Peter E. Siegel is Professor and Chair of Anthropology at Montclair State University, USA. He is a New World archaeologist with research interests in historical ecology, ethnoarchaeology, spatial analysis, and cosmological and political organization. He has conducted projects throughout eastern North America, much of the West Indies, lowland South America, and eastern Bolivia.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SOC003000
SOCIAL SCIENCE / Archaeology