4th Edition

The Art of Digital Video

By John Watkinson Copyright 2008

    The industry "bible" is back and it's better than ever. The Art of Digital Video has served as the ultimate reference guide for those working with digital video for generations. Now this classic has been revised and re-written by international consultant and industry leader John Watkinson to include important technical updates on this ever-evolving topic.

    The format has also been improved to include optional sections that provide additional information that you can choose to skip or investigate further, depending on your interests and comfort level with the subject. As the worlds of film, digital imaging, and computing have converged, this book has evolved to remain current and relevant, while still remaining the classic that experts in the field have trusted for years.

    Chapter 1 Introducing digital video

    1.1 What is a video signal?
    1.2 Standard and High Definition video
    1.3 Colour
    1.4 Convergence of Video and IT
    1.5 Basics: storage, transmission and compression
    1.6 Time compression and packetising
    1.7 Channel coding and error correction
    1.8 Synchronisation and timebase correction
    1.9 Solid state, hard disk, optical and tape storage
    1.10 Transmission: interfaces, broadcasting and networks
    1.11 Asynchronous and isochronous systems
    1.12 Video compression and MPEG
    1.13 Digital audio, stereo and surround sound
    1.14 Applications of digital video
    1.15 Security and encryption
    1.16 Digital cinema

    Chapter 2 Video principles
    2.1 The eye
    2.2 Motion portrayal and dynamic resolution
    2.3 Scanning
    2.4 Scanning formats for SD and HDTV
    2.7 Synchronizing
    2.8 Bandwidth and definition
    2.9 Aperture effect and Kell factor
    2.10 Colour vision
    2.11 Colorimetry
    2.12 Colour displays
    2.13 Colour difference signals

    Chapter 3 Conversion
    3.1 Introduction to conversion
    3.2 Sampling and aliasing
    3.3 Reconstruction
    3.4 Filter design
    3.5 Two-dimensional sampling spectra
    3.6 Choice of sampling rate: SD and HD
    3.7 Sampling clock jitter
    3.8 Quantizing
    3.9 Quantizing error
    3.10 Introduction to dither
    3.11 Requantizing and digital dither
    3.12 Basic digital-to-analog conversion
    3.13 Basic analog-to-digital conversion
    3.14 Factors affecting convertor quality
    3.15 Oversampling
    3.16 Resizing
    3.16 Colour in the digital domain

    Chapter 4 Digital video production
    4.1 Production steps
    4.2 Digital vision mixing
    4.3 Blanking
    4.4 Keying
    4.5 Chroma keying
    4.6 Simple effects
    4.7 Planar digital video effects
    4.8 Address generation and interpolation
    4.9 Skew and rotation
    4.10 Perspective rotation
    4.11 DVE backgrounds
    4.12 Non-planar effects
    4.13 Controlling effects
    4.14 Graphics
    4.15 Graphic art/paint systems
    4.16 Linear and non-linear editing
    4.17 Online and offline editing
    4.18 Remote editing and proxy files
    4.19 Timecode
    4.20 The non-linear workstation
    4.21 Locating the edit point
    4.22 Editing with disk drives

    Chapter 5 Digital Signal Processing
    5.1 Introduction to DSP
    5.2 Filters
    5.3 FIR and IIR filters
    5.4 FIR filters
    5.5 The Fourier transform
    5.6 The discrete cosine transform (DCT)
    5.7 The wavelet transform
    5.8 Importance of motion compensation
    5.9 Motion-compensated standards conversion
    5.10 Motion-compensated telecine system
    5.11 Camera shake compensation
    5.12 De-interlacing
    5.13 Noise reduction

    Chapter 6 Video compression and MPEG
    6.1 Introduction to compression
    6.2 What is MPEG?
    6.3 Spatial and temporal redundancy in MPEG
    6.4 I and P coding
    6.5 Coding applications
    6.6 Spatial compression
    6.7 Scanning and run-length/variable-length coding
    6.8 A bidirectional coder
    6.9 Slices
    6.10 An MPEG-2 coder
    6.11 The Elementary Stream
    6.12 An MPEG-2 decoder
    6.13 MPEG-4 and AVC
    6.14 Coding artefacts and concatenation
    6.15 Processing MPEG-2

    Chapter 7 Digital audio in video
    7.1 What is sound?
    7.2 Level and loudness
    7.3 Critical bands
    7.5 Choice of sampling rate for audio
    7.6 Basic digital-to-analog conversion
    7.7 Basic analog-to-digital conversion
    7.8 Alternative convertors
    7.9 Oversampling and noise shaping
    7.10 One-bit convertors
    7.11 Operating levels in digital audio
    7.12MPEG audio compression
    7.13Dolby AC-3

    Chapter 8 Digital recording principles
    8.1 Introduction to the channel
    8.2 Magnetic recording
    8.3 Optical disks
    8.6 Magneto-optical disks
    8.7 The replay channel
    8.8 Channel coding
    8.9 Group codes
    8.10 EFM Plus code of DVD
    8.11 Tracking signals
    8.12 Randomizing
    8.13 Synchronizing

    Chapter 9 Error correction
    9.1 Sensitivity of message to error
    9.2 Basic error correction
    9.3 Error handling
    9.4 Concealment by interpolation
    9.5 Block and convolutional codes
    9.6 Hamming code
    9.7 Cyclic codes
    9.8 Punctured codes
    9.9 Applications of cyclic codes
    9.10 Burst correction
    9.11 Introduction to the Reed-Solomon codes
    9.12 RS calculations
    9.13 Correction by erasure
    9.14 Interleaving
    9.15 Product codes
    9.16 Editing interleaved recordings

    Chapter 10 Digital Communications
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Serial digital interface (SDI)
    10.3 Serial digital routing
    10.4 HD serial digital interface
    10.5 Testing digital video interfaces542
    10.6 Introduction to the AES/EBU interface
    10.7 AES47
    10.8 Embedded audio in SDI
    10.9 Networks
    10.10 ATM
    10.11 Sending audiovisual material over networks
    10.12 FireWire

    Chapter 11 Digital video tape
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Compression in DVTRs
    11.3 Helical geometry
    11.4 Track and head geometry
    11.5 Track-following systems
    11.6 Time compression and segmentation
    11.7 The basic rotary head transport
    11.8 Operating modes of a digital recorder
    11.9 Editing
    11.10 Variable-speed replay
    11.11 DVTR signal systems
    11.12 Product codes and segmentation
    11.13 Distribution
    11.14 The track structure
    11.15 Digital Betacam
    11.16 The DV and DVC family
    11.17 The D-9 format

    Chapter 12 Disks
    12.1 Types of disk
    12.2 Principle of flying head
    12.3 Moving the heads
    12.4 Servo-surface disks
    12.5 Winchester technology
    12.6 The disk controller
    12.7 Defect handling
    12.8 RAID arrays
    12.9 File servers
    12.10 Disks and compression
    12.11 Optical disk principles
    12.19 Optical pickups
    12.20 Focus systems
    12.21 Tracking systems
    12.22 Structure of a DVD player
    12.23 Recordable DVDs

    Chapter 13 Digital television broadcasting
    13.1 Background
    13.2 Overall system block
    13.3 MPEG Transport streams
    13.4 Program Clock Reference
    13.5 Program Specific Information (PSI)
    13.6 Multiplexing
    13.7 Remultiplexing
    13.8 Modulation techniques
    13.9 Error correction
    13.10 DVB
    13.11 The DVB receiver
    13.12 ATSC



    John Watkinson is an independent international consultant in advanced applications of electronics to audiovisual and avionics systems. He is a Fellow of the AES, a member of the Society of Expert Witnesses, and the British Computer Society and is a chartered information systems practitioner. He presents lectures, seminars and training courses worldwide. He is the author of many other Elsevier books, including The Art of DigitalVideo, An Introduction to Digital Video, Convergence in Broadcast and Communications Media, Television Fundamentals and The Art of the Helicopter.

    Reviews/Praise for previous editions:

    "This is a masterly analysis of everything relating to digitally encoding pictures, from conversion of analogue signals into digital code, through to recording, editing and processing.” --New Scientist