The erythrocyte is perhaps the world's single best known cell, an opinion affirmed by its inseparable linkage with the French expression "Le sang c'est la vie" (i.e., Blood is life). The red cell made its debut in a few invertebrates and thereupon conducted a conceptual phylogenetic odyssey through the Classes of poikilothermic vertebrates, onward to the first homeotherms the avians, and thereafter to the mammals including man. The erythrocyte presents morphologic, cytochemical and quantitative adaptations as it progresses through its evolutionary continuum. The specific objective of this text is to explore in depth the cytology of the erythrocyte in birds. It is intended to derive an understanding of the red cell's diverse aspects as presented among Orders, Families and Genera of avians. Illustrative of the subjects that are explored are the light microscopy and ulrastructure of the maturational sequence of the erythrocyte from proerythroblast to the mature cell, the quantitative representation of the erythroid progenitors in hemopoietic bone marrow, and the relationship of erythropoiesis with the vascular sinuses in the bone marrow. Sections are devoted to the quail-chick chimera and the insight it offers, erythroleukemia, embryologic considerations, primitive and definitive generation erythrocytes, rbc life span, the impact of sporozoan parasitization upon the erythrocellular profile and the morphology associated with pathologic agents and conditions. A major segment of the monograph is a taxonomically organized Table of Erythrogramic Data (primary source-cited, and when derived, indicators of significant differences between sexes, physiologic and experimental conditions).
Table of Contents
Foreword, Acknowledgements, 1. Maturation: erythroblast to erythrocyte, 2. Erythrocyte precursors: quantitative representation in hemopoietic bone marrow, 3. Cytoskeleton, 4. Vascular system and architecture of hemopoietic bone marrow, 5. Relationship of bone marrow sinuses and erythropoiesis, 6. Erythropoiesis during embryogenesis: general plan, 7. Yolk sac erythropoiesis: early phase, 8. Germ disc: earliest commitment to erythroblast formation, 9. Ultrastructure of early yolk sac erythropoiesis, 10. Yolk sac erythropoiesis: later phase, 11. Hemopoietic stem cell and quail-chick chimera, 12. Intraembryonic hemopoietic stem cell: origin and distribution, 13. Hepatic and splenic erythropoiesis during embryogenesis, 14. Medullary erythropoiesis during embryogenesis, 15. Circulating erythrocytes and marrow erythroblasts in the domestic chicken embryo and hatchling: quantitative aspects, 16. Embryonic erythropoiesis: an altricial passeriforme versus a precocial galliforme, 17. Hepatic erythropoiesis in the adult, 18. Thymic erythropoiesis, 19. Erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin levels and hematocrits, 20. Red cell indices (MCV, MCH, MCHC), 21. Confi guration of the erythrocyte, 22. Erythrocyte-based values and gender relationships, 23. Erythrocyte size and variations other than gender-related, 24. Erythroid parameters and relationships with age and other conditions, 25. Erythroid profi le and migratory behavior of the avian, 26. Erythrocytic picture and altitude of habitat, 27. Season and erythroid picture, 28. Interaction of erythropoiesis, egg laying, and iron metabolism, 29. Breeding cycle of a pelagic seabird, 30. Avian hemoglobins: adult and embryonic, 31. Blood volume, 32. Life span of the erythrocyte, 33. Apoptosis, 34. Erythroplastids (denucleated erythrocytes), 35. Staining and cytochemistry, 36. Osmotic fragility, 37. Erythroid reservoir function of the spleen in fowl, 38. Telomeres, 39. Anemia, 40. Polycythemia, 41. Erythroid response to hemorrhage, 42. Phenylhyd
Chester A.Glomski, Alessandera Pica