The Avian Erythrocyte: Its Phylogenetic Odyssey, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

The Avian Erythrocyte

Its Phylogenetic Odyssey, 1st Edition

By Chester A. Glomski, Alessandra Pica

CRC Press

650 pages

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The erythrocyte is perhaps the world's single best known cell, an opinion affirmed by its inseparable linkage with the French expression "Le sang c'est la vie" (i.e., Blood is life). The red cell made its debut in a few invertebrates and thereupon conducted a conceptual phylogenetic odyssey through the Classes of poikilothermic vertebrates, onward to the first homeotherms the avians, and thereafter to the mammals including man. The erythrocyte presents morphologic, cytochemical and quantitative adaptations as it progresses through its evolutionary continuum. The specific objective of this text is to explore in depth the cytology of the erythrocyte in birds. It is intended to derive an understanding of the red cell's diverse aspects as presented among Orders, Families and Genera of avians. Illustrative of the subjects that are explored are the light microscopy and ulrastructure of the maturational sequence of the erythrocyte from proerythroblast to the mature cell, the quantitative representation of the erythroid progenitors in hemopoietic bone marrow, and the relationship of erythropoiesis with the vascular sinuses in the bone marrow. Sections are devoted to the quail-chick chimera and the insight it offers, erythroleukemia, embryologic considerations, primitive and definitive generation erythrocytes, rbc life span, the impact of sporozoan parasitization upon the erythrocellular profile and the morphology associated with pathologic agents and conditions. A major segment of the monograph is a taxonomically organized Table of Erythrogramic Data (primary source-cited, and when derived, indicators of significant differences between sexes, physiologic and experimental conditions).

Table of Contents

Maturation: erythroblast to erythrocyte

Erythrocyte precursors: quantitative representation in hemopoietic bone marrow


Vascular system and architecture of hemopoietic bone marrow

Relationship of bone marrow sinuses and erythropoiesis

Erythropoiesis during embryogenesis: general plan

Yolk sac erythropoiesis: early phase

Germ disc: earliest commitment to erythroblast formation

Ultrastructure of early yolk sac erythropoiesis

Yolk sac erythropoiesis: later phase

Hemopoietic stem cells and quail-chick chimeras

Intraembryonic hemopoietic stem cell: origin and distribution

Hepatic and splenic erythropoiesis during embryogenesis

Medullary erythropoiesis during embryogenesis

Circulating erythrocytes and marrow erythroblasts in the domestic chicken embryo and hatchling: quantitative aspects

Embryonic erythropoiesis: an altricial passeriforme

versus a precocial galliforme

Hepatic erythropoiesis in the adult

Thymic erythropoiesis

Erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin levels and hematocrits

Red cell indices (MCV, MCH, MCHC)

Configuration of the erythrocyte

Erythrocyte-based values and gender relationships

Erythrocyte size and variations other than genderrelated

Erythroid parameters and relationships with age and other conditions

Erythroid profile and migratory behavior of the avian

Erythrocytic picture and altitude of habitat

Season and erythroid picture

Interaction of erythropoiesis, egg laying, and iron metabolism

Breeding cycle of a pelagic seabird

Avian hemoglobins: adult and embryonic

Blood volume

Life span of the erythrocyte


Erythroplastids (denucleated erythrocytes)

Staining and cytochemistry

Osmotic fragility

Erythroid reservoir function of the spleen in fowl




Erythroid response to hemorrhage

Phenylhydrazine-induced anemia and Heinz bodies

Assessment of erythropoietic status of bone marrow

Avian C-value

Metals and erythropoiesis

Parasitization of the erythrocyte







Erythrocytes and pathologic conditions/agents

Folic acid deficiency and megaloblasts

Rapeseed and dimethyl disulphide


Prudhoe Bay crude and other oil

Bacterial disease

Viral disease


Ascites syndrome


Antibiotics and chicks

Antibiotics and chicks

Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia


Hormones and erythropoiesis

Avian erythrocyte: a generator of cytokines

Anticoagulants: impact upon erythrocytes

Table 1: Erythrocyte Counts and Related Values in Avians

Appendix: Genus, Species and Other Taxa of Cited Avians and Non-Avians

Glossary: Common Names of Species Cited in the Text and Tables

About the Authors

Chester A.Glomski, Alessandera Pica

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
NATURE / Animals / General
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Evolution
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / General