This edited volume presents a comprehensive analysis of the ‘Baltic question’, which arose within the context of the Cold War, and which has previously received little attention.
This volume brings together a group of international specialists on the international history of northern Europe. It combines country-based chapters with more thematic approaches, highlighting above all the political dimension of the Baltic question, locating it firmly in the context of international politics. It explores the policy decision-making mechanisms which sustained the Western non-recognition of Soviet sovereignty over the Baltic States after 1940 and which eventually led to the legal restoration of the three countries’ statehood in 1991. The wider international ramifications of this doctrine of legal continuity are also examined, within the context both of the Cold War and of relations between post-soviet Russia and the enlarging ‘Euro-Atlantic area’. The book ends with an examination of how this Cold War legacy continues to shape relations between Russia and the West.
Introduction: The Baltic Question and the Cold War John Hiden, Vahur Made and David J. Smith. The Baltic States and Europe, 1918-1940 Vahur Made. The US, Soviet Russia and the Baltic States: From Recognition to the Cold War Eero Medijainen. Roosevelt and the Dictators: The Origin of US Non-Recognition of the Soviet Annexation of the Baltic States Jonathan L’hommedieu. The Politics of a Principle: US Non-Recognition Policy Before, During and After the Recovery of Baltic Independence Paul A. Goble. Soviet Foreign Policy During the Cold War: The Baltic Factor Konstantin K. Khudoley. Britain and the Baltic States: The Late 1940s and the Early 1990s Craig Gerrard. French Policy towards the Baltic States 1939-1991: From Abandonment to Reunion Suzanne Champonnois. West Germany and the Baltic Question During the Cold War Kristina Spohr Readman. The Estonian Government-in-Exile: A Controversial Project of State Continuation Vahur Made. Emigrés, Dissidents and International Organisations Helen M. Morris and Vahur Made. Between Political Rhetoric and Realpolitik Calculations: Western Diplomacy and the Baltic Independence Struggle in the Cold War Endgame Kristina Spohr Readman. The End of the ‘Baltic Question’? The Baltic States, Russia and the West in the Post-Cold War Era David J. Smith