by Routledge

    The Celtic World, a new title in the Routledge Critical Concepts in Historical Studies series, brings together canonical and the best cutting-edge scholarship in Celtic Studies, including key journal articles, many of which have been translated into English specifically for this set. Organized into four volumes, it gives an overview of the most important issues in the fields of theory, archaeology, history and linguistics, covering different aspects of Celtic cultures in Central and Western Europe, from Antiquity to the Middle Ages.

    There are several Celtic worlds: some in the past, some in the present, some in archaeology, some in language, some in history. In this collection, several of these worlds are explored in depth. The present discussions in Celtic Studies about how to deal with its subject—and if it exists at all—are examined, as is the debate about where it should turn in the future. The greater part of this set, however, investigates the Celtic pasts and the three main strands that provide us with evidence about it: archaeology, history and linguistics.

    The first volume deals with Theory in Celtic Studies, from the ‘Celticity’ debate and the nativism-versus-antinativism controversy to the search for the discipline’s future role. Volume 2 covers Celtic archaeology, from the search for ‘Celtic origins’ via late Hallstatt ‘princely’ tombs and La Tène culture to Romano-Celtic and ‘late Celtic’ archaeology of the British Isles. Volume 3 looks at historical sources on Celtic topics, in Antiquity, ‘the age of Arthur’ and the early Middle Ages. Finally, the fourth volume covers language from the earliest to medieval attestations, examining their typology and language contacts.

    The collection is completed by an introduction to each volume, newly written by the editors, together with a full index. It is destined to be welcomed by Celtic Studies scholars—and those working in allied disciplines such as archaeology, history and linguistics—as an invaluable reference resource.

    Volume 1: Theory in Celtic Studies

    R. Karl and D. Stifter, ‘Celtic Worlds: A General Introduction’

    R. Karl, Introduction to Volume 1: ‘Theory in Celtic Studies’

    Part 1: The ‘Celticity’ Debate

    1. H. P. Uenze, ‘A Celtic Millennium? Continuity and Discontinuity’ (translation of ‘Ein keltisches Jahrtausend? Kontinuität und Diskontinuität’, in H. Dannheimer and R. Gebhard (eds.), Das keltische Jahrtausend. Ausstellungskataloge der prähistorischen Staatssammlung Band 23 (Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1993), 7–14)

    2. J. R. Collis, ‘Reconstructing Iron Age Society’, in K. Kristiansen and J. Jensen (eds.), Europe in the First Millennium B.C. (Sheffield Archaeological Monographs, 1994), 31–9

    3. A. P. Fitzpatrick, ‘"Celtic" Iron Age Europe: The Theoretical basis’, in P. Graves-Brown, S. Jones and C. Gamble (eds.), Cultural Identity and Archaeology: The Construction of European Communities (London and New York: Routledge, 1996), 238–55

    4. J. V. S. Megaw and R. M. Megaw, ‘Ancient Celts and Modern Ethnicity’, Antiquity 70 (267), 1996, 175–81

    5. J. R. Collis, ‘Celtic Myths’, Antiquity 71 (271), 1997, 195–201

    6. J. V. S. Megaw and R. M. Megaw, ‘Do the Ancient Celts Still Live? An Essay on Identity and Contextuality’, Studia Celtica 31, 1998, 107–23

    7. S. James, ‘Celts, Politics and Motivation in Archaeology’, Antiquity 72 (275), 1998, 200–9

    8. P. Sims-Williams, ‘Celtomania and Celtoscepticism’, Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies 36 (Aberystwyth: CMCS Publications, 1998), 1–35

    Part 2: Nativism and Antinativism

    9. M. Dillon, ‘The Archaism of Irish Tradition’, Proceedings of the British Academy 33, 1951, 245–64

    10. K. H. Jackson, The Oldest Irish Tradition: A Window on the Iron Age (Cambridge, 1964), 1–55

    11. P. Mac Cana, ‘Conservation and Innovation in Early Celtic Literature’, Études Celtiques 13, 1973, 61–118

    12. D. A. Binchy, ‘Celtic Suretyship: A Fossilized Indo-European Institution?’, The Irish Jurist 7, 1972: 360–72

    13. J. Carney, ‘The Ecclesiastical Background to Irish Saga’, Artica: Essays Presented to Aake Campbell: Studia Ethnographica Upsaliensia 11 (Uppsala, 1956), 221–7

    14. D. Ó Corráin, ‘Irish Origin Legends and Genealogy: Recurrent Aetiologies’, in T. Nyberg, I. Piø, P. M. Sørenen and A. Trommer (eds.), History and Heroic Tale (Odense, 1985), 51–96

    15. L. Breatnach, ‘Secular Law and Canon Law’, Peritia 3, 39–59

    Part 3: Theoretical Approaches to Celtic Studies?

    16. M. Tymoczko, ‘What Questions Should we ask in Celtic Studies in the New Millennium?’, in J. F. Nagy (ed.), Identifying the ‘Celtic’, CSANA Yearbook 2 (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2002), 10–29

    17. R. Karl, ‘Awaking from the Long Sleep of Theory? A New Theoretical Approach for Celtic Studies’ (translation of ‘Erwachen aus dem langen Schlaf der Theorie? Ansätze zu einer keltologischen Wissenschaftstheorie’, in E. Poppe (ed.), Keltologie heute: Themen und Fragestellungen, Akten des 3 (Deutschen Keltologensymposiums, Marburg, März, 2001), Studien und Texte zur Keltologie 6, Münster: Nodus Publikationen, 2004: 291–303)

    Part 4: The Search for a Role for Celtic Studies

    18. A. Hale and P. Payton, ‘Introduction’, in A. Hale and P. Payton (eds.), New Directions in Celtic Studies (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2000), 1–14

    19. G. Isaac, ‘Paths of the Celts, Paths of Celtic Studies: Cultural Reflections on the Function of an "Arts Subject"’ (translation of ‘Wege der Kelten, Wege der Keltologie: Kulturwissenschaftliche Betrachtungen zur Funktion einer Geisteswissenschaft’, in G. Hemprich et al. (eds.), Festgabe für Hildegard L.C. Tristram zum sechzigsten Geburtstag (Hagen/Westfalen: curach-bhán-publications, 2001), 1–17

    20. J. T. Koch, ‘Some Thoughts on Ethnic Identity, Cultural Pluralism, and the Future of Celtic Studies’, in M. Herbert and K. Murray (eds.), Retrospect and Prospect in Celtic Studies (proceedings of the 11th International Celtic Congress held in University College, Cork, 25–31 July 1999) (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2003), 75-92

    Volume 2: Celtic Archaeology

    R. Karl, Introduction to Volume 2: ‘Celtic Archaeology’

    Part 1: The Search for ‘the Origin of the Celts’

    21. L. Pauli, ‘The Origin of the Celts: Sense and Nonsense of an Old Question’ (translation of ‘Die Herkunft der Kelten: Sinn und Unsinn einer alten Frage’, in L. Pauli (ed.), Die Kelten in Mitteleuropa. Kultur – Kunst – Wirtschaft (Salzburger Landesausstellung, 1 May–30 September 1980 im Keltenmuseum Hallein, Österreich) (Salzburg, 1980), 16–24)

    22. J. Collis, ‘The Origin and the Spread of the Celts’, Studia Celtica 30, 1996, 17–34

    23. G. Ruiz Zapatero and A.L. Lorrio, ‘The Prehistoric Roots of the Celtiberian World’ (translation of ‘Las raíces prehistóricas del mundo celtibérico’, in J. A. Arenas Esteban and V. Palacios Tamayo (eds.), El Origen del Mundo Celtibérico. Actas de los encuentros sobre el origen del mundo Celtibérico (Molina de Aragón, 1–3 October 1998), Molina de Aragón 1999: 21–36)

    Part 2: Princes or Village Elders? Interpreting Late Hallstatt ‘Princely’ Tombs

    24. S. Frankenstein and M. J. Rowlands, ‘The Internal Structure and Regional Context of Early Iron Age Society in South-western Germany’, Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology (London) 15, 1978, 73–112

    25. C. Pare, ‘Fürstensitze: Celts and the Mediterranean World: Developments in the West Hallstatt Culture in the 6th and 5th Centuries B.C.’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 52(2), 1991, 183–202

    26. F. Fischer, ‘The Early Celts of West Central Europe: The Semantics of Social Structure’, in B. Arnold and D. B. Gibson (eds.), Celtic Chiefdom, Celtic State: The Evolution of Complex Social Systems in Prehistoric Europe (New Directions in Archaeology, Cambridge, 1995), 34–40

    27. M. K. H. Eggert, ‘Giant Tumuli and Social Organisation: Comparative Remarks on the Late Hallstatt so-called "Princely Tombs"’ (translation of ‘Riesentumuli und Sozialorganisation: Vergleichende Betrachtungen zu den sogenannten "Fürstengrabhügeln" der Späten Hallstattzeit’), Arch. Korrbl., 18, 1988, 263–74

    28. M. K. H. Eggert, ‘The Hochdorf Dead: Comments on the Mode of Archaeological Interpretation’ (translation of ‘Der Tote von Hochdorf: Bemerkungen zum Modus archäologischer Interpretation’), Arch. Korrbl., 29, 1999, 211–22

    29. D. Krausse, ‘The "Celtic Prince" of Hochdorf: Village Elder or Sacred King? Claims and Reality of a So-called Culture-Anthropological Hallstatt Archaeology’ (translation of ‘Der "Keltenfürst" von Hochdorf: Dorfältester oder Sakralkönig? Anspruch und Wirklichkeit der sog. kulturanthropologischen Hallstatt-Archäologie’), Arch. Korrbl., 29, 1999: 339–58

    30. U. Veit, ‘King and High Priest? On the Theory of a Religious Foundation of Hallstatt Leadership’ (translation of ‘König und Hohepriester? Zur These der sakralen Gründung der Herrschaft in der Hallstattzeit’), Arch. Korrbl., 30, 2000: 549–68

    Part 3: The Spread of La Tène Culture: Migration, Diffusion, or Scholarly Invention?

    31. C. F. C. Hawkes, ‘Hill-forts’, Antiquity 5, 1931, 60–97

    32. F. R. Hodson, ‘Cultural Groupings within the Pre-Roman British Iron Age’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 30, 1964, 99–110

    33. C. Haselgrove, ‘Iron Age Britian and its European setting’, in J. R. Collis (ed.), Society and Settlement in Iron Age Europe, Actes du XVIIIe Colloque de l’AFEAF, Winchester, April 1994 (Sheffield Archaeological Monographs, 2002), 37–72

    Part 4: Romano-Celtic Archaeology

    34. M. Altjohann, ‘Remarks on the Origin of the Gallo-Roman Circumambulatory Temple’ (translation of ‘Bemerkungen zum Ursprung des gallo-römischen Umgangstempels’, in W. Czysz et al. (eds.), Provinzialrömische Forschungen [Festschr. G. Ulbert] (Espelkamp, 1995), 169–203)

    35. O. Buchsenschutz, ‘The Celtic Oppida: An Original Phenomenon of Urbanization’ (translation of ‘Les oppida celtiques un phénomène original d’urbanisation’, in V. Guichard, S. Sievers and O. H. Urban (eds.), Les processus d’urbanisation à l’âge du Fer (Collection Bibracte 4, Glux-en-Glenne, 2000), 61–4)

    36. S. Esmonde Cleary, ‘Roman Britain: Civil and Rural Society’, in J. Hunter and I. Ralston (eds.), The Archaeology of Britain: An Introduction from the Upper Palaeolithic to the Industrial Revolution (London and New York, 1999), 157–75

    37. M. E. Jones, ‘The Failure of Romanization in Celtic Britain’, Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic Colloquium 7, 1987, 126–45

    Part 5: Late ‘Celtic’ Archaeology in the British Isles

    38. N. Netzer, ‘Style: A History of Uses and Abuses in the Study of Insular Art’, in M. Redknap et al. (eds.), Pattern and Purpose in Insular Art (Oxford, 2001), 169–78

    39. V. B. Proudfoot, ‘The Economy of the Irish Rath’, Medieval Archaeology 5, 1961, 94–122

    Volume 3: Celtic History

    R. Karl, Introduction to Volume 3: ‘Celtic History’

    Part 1: Ancient History

    40. J. J. Tierney, ‘The Celtic Ethnography of Poseidonius’, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 5 (60C), 1960, 189–275

    41. G. Dobesch, ‘Caesar as an Ethnographer’ (translation of ‘Caesar als Ethnograph’, Wiener humanistische Blätter, 31, 1989: 16–51)

    42. S. B. Dunham, ‘Caesar’s Perception of Gallic Social Structures’, in B. Arnold and D. B. Gibson (eds.), Celtic Chiefdom, Celtic State: The Evolution of Complex Social Systems in Prehistoric Europe (New Directions in Archaeology, Cambridge, 1995), 110–15

    Part 2: The Arthurian Question and Dark Age ‘Celtic’ History

    43. D. Fahy, ‘When did Britons become Bretons? A Note on the Foundation of Brittany’, Welsh History Review, 2, 1965, 111–24

    44. C. A. R. Radford, ‘Romance and Reality in Cornwall’, in G. Ashe (ed.), The Quest for Arthur’s Britain (New York: Paladin, 1971), 59–77

    45. T. Charles-Edwards, ‘The Arthur of History’, in R. Bromwich, A. O. H. Jarman and B. F. Roberts (eds.), The Arthur of the Welsh: The Arthurian Legend in Medieval Welsh Literature (Cardiff, 1991), 15–32

    46. L. Alcock, ‘The North Britons, the Picts, and the Scots’, in P. J. Casey (ed.), The End of Roman Britain (BAR British Series 71) (Oxford: Tempus Reparatum, 1979), 134–42

    47. A. A. M. Duncan, ‘Bede, Iona and the Picts’, in R. H. C. Davis and J. M. Wallace-Hadrill (eds.), The Writing of History in the Middle Ages: Essays Presented to R. W. Southern (Oxford, 1981), 1–42

    48. N. Higham, ‘Britons in Northern England in the Early Middle Ages: Through a Thick Glass Darkly’, Northern History 38.1, 5–25

    49. P. Sims-Williams, ‘Some Functions of Origin Stories in Early Medieval Wales’, in T. Nyberg, I. Piø, P. M. Sørenen and A. Trommer (eds.), History and Heroic Tale: A Symposium (Odense, 1985), 97–131

    50. R. P. C. Hanson, ‘The Date of Patrick’, Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library, 61, 1979, 60–77

    51. E. A. Thompson, ‘St Patrick and Coroticus’, Journal of Theological Studies, NS, 31, 1980, 12–27

    52. W. Davies, ‘The Myth of the Celtic Church’, in N. E. Edwards and A. Lane (eds.), The Early Church in Wales and the West (Oxbow Monograph 16, 1992), 12–21

    Part 3: Interpreting Early Irish and Welsh ‘Historical’ Sources

    53. J. Koch, ‘A Welsh Window on the Iron Age’, CMCS 14, 1987, 17–52

    54. D. Dumville, ‘Early Welsh Poetry: Problems of Historicity’, in B. F. Roberts (ed.), Early Welsh Poetry: Studies in the Book of Aneirin (Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales, 1988), 1–16

    55. D. Dumville, ‘Sub-Roman Britain: History and Legend’, History 62, 173–92

    56. G. McNiocaill, The Medieval Irish Annals (Dublin Medieval Society, 1975), 5–49

    57. G. Hemprich, ‘Legend and Truth: The Problem of Reliable Historical Sources in Medieval Ireland’ (translation of ‘Dichtung und Wahrheit: Das Problem verlässlicher historischer Quellen im irischen Mittelalter’, in Erich Poppe (ed.), Keltologie heute: Themen und Fragestellungen Akten des 3. Deutschen Keltologensymposiums – Marburg, März 2001 (Münster, 2004), 153–68

    58. D. Ó. Corráin, ‘Historical Need and Literary Narrative’, in D. Ellis Evans, J. G. Griffith and E. M. Jope (eds.), Proceedings of the 7th Celtic Studies Conference (Oxford, 1983, 1986), 141–58

    59. S. Ó. Coileáin, ‘Some Problems of Story and History’, Eriu 32, 1981, 115–36

    60. D. Ó. Corráin, ‘Creating the Past: The Early Irish Genealogical Tradition’, Peritia 12, 1998: 177–208.

    Volume 4: Celtic Linguistics

    D. Stifter, Introduction to Volume 4: ‘Celtic Linguistics’

    Part 1: New Light on Old Languages

    61. H. Eichner, ‘Then and Today: Problems of the Analysis of Old Celtic in the Time of Zeuss and Today’ (translation of ‘Damals und heute: Probleme der Erschließung des Altkeltischen zu Zeußens Zeit und in der Gegenwart’, in Erlanger Gedenkfeier für Johann Kaspar Zeuß. Herausgegeben von Bernhard Forssman (Erlanger Forschungen: Reihe A Geisteswissenschaft Band 49) (Erlangen: Universitätsbibliothek, 1989, 9–56)

    62. J. Uhlich, ‘On the Linguistic Classification of Lepontic’ (translation of ‘Zur sprachlichen Einordnung des Lepontischen’, in Akten des zweiten deutschen Keltologensymposiums (Bonn, 2–4 April 1997), Herausgegeben von Stefan Zimmer, Rolf Ködderitzsch und Arndt Wigger (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1999), 277–304)

    63. J. Eska, ‘Rethinking the Evolution of Celtic Constituent Configuration’, Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft, 55 (1995), 7–39

    Part 2: Typology and Language Contact

    64. J. Morris-Jones, ‘Appendix B. Pre-Aryan Syntax in Insular Celtic’, in John Rhys and David Brynmor-Jones, The Welsh People: Chapters on their Origin, History, Laws, Language, Literature and Characteristics (London: Fisher Unwin, 1900), 617–41

    65. J. Pokorny, ‘The Pre-Celtic Inhabitants of Ireland’, Celtica 5, 1960, 229–40

    66. H. Wagner, ‘Near Eastern and African Connections with the Celtic World’, in Robert O’Driscoll (ed.), The Celtic Consciousness (New York: Braziller, 1981), 51–67

    67. O. Gensler, excerpts from The Celtic-North African Linguistic Link: Substrata and Typological Argumentation (Berkeley, 1993)

    68. S. Hewitt, ‘The Insular Celtic/Hamito-Semitic Hypothesis’, newly written for this collection.

    69. M. Filppula, J. Klemola and H. Pitkänen, ‘Early Contacts between English and the Celtic Languages’, in M. Filppula, J. Klemola and H. Pitkänen (eds.), The Celtic Roots of English, Studies in Languages 37 (Joensuu: University of Joensuu, Faculty of Humanities, 2002), 1–26

    Part 3: A Particular Problem: The Insular Celtic Absolute and Conjunct Verbal Inflection

    70. W. Cowgill, ‘The Origins of the Insular Celtic Conjunct and Absolute Verbal Endings’, in Flexion und Wortbildung (Akten der V. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft, Regensburg, 9–14 September 1973) (ed. Helmut Rix, Wiesbaden: Niemeyer, 1975), 40–70

    71. K. McCone, ‘The Absolute and Conjunct Verbal Inflection in Old Irish’, in Grammatische Kategorien: Funktion und Geschichte (Akten der VII. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft, Berlin, 20–5 February 1983) (Herausgegeben von Bernfried Schlerath unter Mitarbeit von Veronica Rittner, Wiesbaden: Reichert, 1985), 261–70

    72. P. Schrijver, ‘The Celtic Adverbs for "Against" and "With" and the Early Apocope pf *-i. 7. The Origin of the Primitive Irish Main Clause Verbal Particle *es. (the present conjunct forms of the Oir. copula after *ne "not")’, Ériu 45, 1994, 180–6

    73. S. Schumacher, ‘Absolute and Conjunct’ (translation of ‘§8. Absolut und konjunkt’, in Die keltischen Primärverben. Ein vergleichendes, etymologisches und morphologisches Lexikon. Unter Mitarbeit von Britta Schulze-Thulin und Caroline aan de Wiel (Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 110, Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen der Universität Innsbruck, 2004), 90–114

    74. K. McCone, ‘A Very Particular Particle: Pseudo-eti in Insular Celtic and Some Questions of Methodology’, newly written for this collection.


    Raimund Karl is Lecturer in Heritage and Archaeology at the University of Wales, Bangor and is external lecturer in Celtic Cultural Studies at the University of Vienna, Austria. He is a member of the Board of Celtic Studies. His recent publications include a major monograph on Old Celtic Social Structures and one on an Iron Age settlement, Göttlesbrunn in Lower Austria.

    David Stifter is now lecturer at the Dept. for Linguistics in Vienna, having studied Indo-European and Celtic linguistics in Vienna and Maynooth (Ireland). He has published widely on Old Irish and Continental Celtic linguistics and Irish literature, most recently a modern-style introductory course to Old Irish, "Sengoídelc. Old Irish for Beginners".