This volume focuses on how, in Europe, the debate on the commons is discussed in regard to historical and contemporary dimensions, critically referencing the work of Elinor Ostrom. It also explores from the perspective of new institutional political ecology (NIPE) how Europe directly and indirectly affected and affects the commons globally.
Most of the research on the management of commons pool resources is limited to dealing with one of two topics: either the interaction between local participatory governance and development of institutions for commons management, or a political- economy approach that focuses on global change as it is related to the increasingly globalised expansion of capitalist modes of production, consumption and societal reproduction. This volume bridges the two, addressing how global players affect the commons worldwide and how they relate to responses emerging from within the commons in a global- local (glocal) world. Authors from a range of academic disciplines present research findings on recent developments on the commons, including: historical insights; new innovations for participatory institutions building in Europe or several types of commons grabbing, especially in Africa related to European investments; and restrictions on the management of commons at the international level. European case studies are included, providing interesting examples of local participation in commons resource management, while simultaneously showing Europe as a centre for globalized capitalism and its norms and values, affecting the rest of the world, particularly developing countries.
This book will be of interest to students and researchers from a wide range of disciplines including natural resource management, environmental governance, political geography and environmental history.
Table of Contents
Introduction: commons in a ‘glocal’ world
TOBIAS HALLER, THOMAS BREU, CHRISTIAN ROHR, TINE DE MOOR AND HEINZPETER ZNOJ
PART I Key reflections: new theoretical issues on the commons and their transformations
1 Shared ownership as a key issue of Swiss history: common-pool resources, common property institutions and their impact on the political culture of Switzerland from the beginnings to our days
2 Social causality of our common climate crisis: towards a sociodicy for the Anthropocene
3 Disruption, community, and resilient governance: environmental justice in the Anthropocene
4 A definition of the commons, between human rights, resistance, and social change
5 Towards a new institutional political ecology: how to marry external effects, institutional change and the role of power and ideology in commons studies
PART II European examples from past and present
SECTION 2.1 Historical approaches
6 Common challenges, different fates. The causal factors of failure or success in the commons: the pre-modern Brecklands (England) and the Campine (Southern Low Countries) compared
MAÏKA DE KEYZER
7 For the common good: regulating the Lake Constance fisheries from 1350 to 1800
8 The commons in highland and lowland Switzerland over time: transformations in their organisation and survival strategies (seventeenth to twentieth century)
ANNE- LISE HEAD-KÖNIG
9 From natural supply to financial yields: the common fields of the Bernese Civic Corporation since the seventeenth century
MARTIN STUBER AND SARAH BAUMGARTNER
SECTION 2.2 Current commons and innovation issues
10 Universal values and the protection of commons: fighting corruption with bottom-up process in Mallorca
11 Constitutionality and identity: bottom-up institution building and identity among Coastal Sami in Northern Norway
12 Swiss alpine pastures as common property: a success story of bottom-up institution-building in Sumvitg, Canton of Grisons, Switzerland
Features and effects of global (e.g. European) investments on commons in the world
SECTION 3.1 ‘Land grabbing’ and the commons
13 Impacts of large-scale land acquisitions on common-pool resources: evidence from the Land Matrix
MARKUS GIGER, KERSTIN NOLTE, WARD ANSEEUW, THOMAS BREU, WYTSKE CHAMBERLAIN, PETER MESSERLI, CHRISTOPH OBERLACK AND TOBIAS HALLER
14 “They said they were bringing a development project”: ‘best- practice’ large-scale land acquisition or ‘commons grabbing’ in Ghana’s Volta Region?
15 Grabbing the female commons: large-scale land acquisitions for forest plantations and impacts on gender relations in Kilolo district, Iringa Region, Tanzania
16 Gendered impacts and coping strategies in the case of a Swiss bioenergy project in Sierra Leone
SECTION 3.2 Investments in infrastructure and mining
17 The open cut: mining, transnational corporations and the commons
THOMAS NIEDERBERGER, MADLEN KOBI AND TOBIAS HALLER
18 Are green energy investments levelled by the ‘new commons’? Compensations, CSR measures and gendered impacts of a solar energy project in Morocco
SECTION 3.3 Green enclosures
19 Global changes in local governance of the commons: the case of the African Parks Foundation engagement in Nech Sar National Park, Ethiopia
GIRMA KELBORO AND TILL STELLMACHER
20 Discourse and entanglement in a transnational conservation arena: deciphering the ideologies and narratives behind conservation discourse in the ‘glocal’ commons in Kenya
21 Rain forest anomy: national parks, REDD+ implementation and the run to the forest in Jambi, Indonesia
HEINZPETER ZNOJ, RAHEL JUD AND YUDI BACHRIOKTORA
PART IV Commons, privatisation and international law: the right to water
22 A structured checklist to identify connections between land grabbing and water grabbing
23 International investment agreements and mega-regionals: promoting or undermining the right to water?
RODRIGO POLANCO LAZO AND AZERNOOSH BAZRAFKAN
24 The human right to water in India: in search of an alternative commons-based approach in the context of climate change
Tobias Haller is Professor at the Institute of Social Anthropology, University of Bern, Switzerland.
Thomas Breu is Director, Centre for Development and Environment, and Executive Director, International Graduate School North- South, University of Bern, Switzerland.
Tine De Moor is a Professor in the Department of Social and Economic History, Utrecht University, the Netherlands.
Christian Rohr is Professor of Environmental and Climate History, University of Bern, Switzerland.
Heinzpeter Znoj is Professor at the Institute of Social Anthropology and director of the Board of the Center for Development and Environment at the University of Bern, Switzerland.