The Counterterrorism Handbook : Tactics, Procedures, and Techniques, Fourth Edition book cover
4th Edition

The Counterterrorism Handbook
Tactics, Procedures, and Techniques, Fourth Edition

ISBN 9781439846704
Published July 26, 2011 by CRC Press
529 Pages 44 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Terrorists constantly present new challenges to law enforcement, emergency response teams, security planners, and others involved in counterterrorism. Since the last edition of this volume was published, additional atrocities have occurred and new threats have surfaced. The fourth edition of The Counterterrorism Handbook: Tactics, Procedures, and Techniques provides the latest developments and offers new insights on the War on Terror.

Updated to reflect an increased focus on terrorism in public transportation, this volume provides an understanding of the strategies, tactics, and techniques required to tackle terrorism as it exists today. It illustrates essential topics such as the elements common to all terrorism, bomb threats, risk assessment, hostages, and weapons of mass destruction. It also presents case studies of some of the most notorious terrorist incidents, including both World Trade Center attacks, Oklahoma City, Centennial Olympic Park, the U.S. Embassy, the U.S.S. Cole, and attacks in Madrid, London, and Glasgow.

The only way to effectively deal with terrorism is to have a thorough understanding of its present-day characteristics — who is involved and what weapons and tactics they are likely to use. In language friendly to first responders, this volume presents a comprehensive strategy of how to deal with a whole gamut of possible terrorist incidents. Covering everything from bombings and hostage-taking to nuclear terrorism, the book describes in specific detail what needs to be done before, during, and after an event. Armed with this information, those charged with protecting the public will be better equipped to face myriad threats.

Table of Contents

Terrorism: An Overview

New Game
Global War on Terrorism
Meaning of Terrorism
What Is Terrorism?
Brief History of Terrorism
Terrorism in the United Kingdom
Modern Terrorist Groups
Terrorism as a Political Statement
The Nature of Terrorism
Characteristics of Terrorism
Financial Terrorism
Terrorist Actions
Other Terrorist Actions
Intimidation and Threats
Disinformation and Propaganda
Common Elements of Terrorism
Purpose of Terrorism
Modern Terrorist Groups
Why Terrorists Succeed
Democratic Legal System
Access to Arms
Vulnerability of Targets
Counterterrorist Response
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Role of the Military
Homeland Defense
Implementation of Homeland Security
Organizing Homeland Security
Border and Transportation Security
Emergency Preparedness and Response
Science and Technology
Information and Infrastructure Protection
Task Force Initiatives
Local Law Enforcement Capabilities
Local Significance
Private Sector Cooperation
Terror Defense Planning
Introduction to Risk Assessment
Security Advisory System
Structuring a Preincident Plan
Information Gathering
Target Profiles
Target Analysis
Terrorist Tactics
The Suburban Threat
Risk Analysis
Risk Avoidance
Hostage/Kidnap Defense
Bomb Defense Planning
Bomb Incidents
The Bomb Threat
Rationale of Bomb Threats
A Note of Warning
Warning or Hoax?
Taking a Bomb Threat Call
Bomb Threat Decision Making
Evacuation Options
Evacuation Procedure Overview
Putting Out the Message
Planning Issues
Bomb Threats and the Police
The Bomb: Terrorist Weapon of Choice
Types of Bombers
Motivation of Bombers
Hostage Situations
A Rare Occurrence
Who Takes Hostages?
Panic Reaction
Suicide by Cop
Why Hostages Are Taken
The Magic Triangle
Munich, 1972
Killing on Deadline
Responsibilities of the First Responding Officers
The Mobilization Point
Location of the Mobilization Point
Decision Makers
Keeping Track of People
Start Intelligence Gathering
Inner Perimeter
Tactical Units
First Response Review
Kidnapping as a Weapon
Risks Involved
Differences between Hostage Taking and Kidnapping
Uses of Kidnapping
Types of Kidnappers
Post-Cold War Political Kidnapping
Domestic Spousal Confrontation/Emotionally Disturbed
During and after the U.S. Operation in Iraq
Private Industry’s Role
The Police Role
Police Response to Residence or Workplace of Victim
Response to the Kidnap/Extortion Threat
"Do Not Contact the Police"
Prevention Tactics
What the Individual Can Do
Journalists Do Not Have Exemptions
What the Family Can Do
One Man’s Ordeal
What the Corporation Can Do
On Becoming a Victim
Terrorism on Public Transportation
Dorothy Moses Schulz
Where Are Terrorists Likely to Strike?
Transit as a Target—Vulnerable and Attractive
Overlapping Jurisdictions Complicate Response Efforts
A Brief Case Study—Virginia Metro Incident
Terrorists and Criminals Ride the Rails
Freight Trains Are Also Targets
International Rail Transit Terrorism
Chechen Separatists Target the Moscow Subway System
Gas and Arson Attacks
Buses—Mobile Explosives and Hostage Sites
Waterborne Terrorism
Attacks and Hijackings
Piracy—Updating an Old Crime to New Purposes
Weapons of Mass Destruction
A Long History
Definition of Weapons of Mass Destruction
The Threat Today
Aum Shinrikyo Incident
U.S. Anthrax Attack
Chemical and Biological Agents
Transmission of Infectious Agents
Chemical Agents
Common Nerve Agents
Blood Agents
Blister (Mustard) Agents
Choking/Lung/Pulmonary Agents
Riot Control
Common Terms Associated with Biological Agents
Common Biological Agents: Class A
Common Biological Agents: Class B
Common Biological Agents: Class C
Other Biological Agents
Nuclear Weapons
Response to a WMD Incident
First Responders
Federal Assistance
Local Initiatives
Protective Gear Requirements for WMD Response
Domestic Terrorism
Leaderless Groups and Lone Wolves
Discovery Channel Hostages
Other Ecoterror Groups
Animal Rights Groups
Animal Liberation Front
Food Fights
ALF Lone Wolf
Islamic Lone Wolves
Abortion Clinic Violence
Contemporary Homegrown Islamic Terrorists
Non-Islamic Homegrown Contemporary Terrorists
Early Homegrown Terrorists
Using America as a Battleground
Bomb Searches
General Concepts
Building Searches
Exterior Searches
Interior Searches
Search Teams
Setting Up a Program
Alternative to Search Teams
Mechanics of the Search
Room Search
Common Bomb Placement Locations
Vehicle Search
Antipersonnel Car Bombs
Vehicle-Borne Explosive Devices
Aircraft Searches
Preincident Executive Search
Explosive Detection Canines
Suspected Packages
Energetic Materials and Explosive Devices
Energetic Materials
Explosives Defined
Types of High Explosives
Identifying Improvised Explosive Devices
Firing Train
Initiation Systems
IED Packaging
Characteristics of Military Ordnance
Hostage Incidents
What Is Involved
Communicating with the Hostage Taker
The Making of a Hostage Incident
The Announcement
Reaction of Law Enforcement Professionals
The Application of Time
Criminal Role
Police Role
Evacuation and Intelligence
Advances in Technology in Gathering Intelligence
Why Police Do the Negotiating
Postincident Crisis Intervention Teams
Controlling the Environment
Dynamics of Hostage Negotiation
Gathering Intelligence of the Hostage Taker
Words and Phrases
A Note on Weapons
Saying No
The Art of Negotiation
Courses of Action
The Surrender and Suicide Ritual
Thought Interruption
Never Take a Weapon from the Hand of a Surrendering
Special Qualifications
Certification of Hostage Negotiators
Transportation Terrorism Countermeasures
Dorothy Moses Schulz
Tabletop Exercises
Public Information and Outreach
Employee Information, Outreach, and Training
Emergency Responder Information, Outreach, and Training
Patrol by Uniformed and Plainclothes Police/Security Officers
Behavioral Recognition
Canine Teams
Passenger and Baggage Screening
Surveillance Technology
Redesigning and Minimizing Station Furniture
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED)
Protecting America’s Ports
Deterring Piracy
Postblast Environment
Getting Back to Normal
The Incident
Types of Explosions
First Responders
Search and Rescue Phase
Command Post Operations
Blast Damage
Types of Building Collapses
SAR Marking Systems
Exterior Marking
Investigative Phase
Search Equipment
Establishing the Parameters of the Investigation
Preliminary Actions
Seat of the Explosion
Gathering Physical Evidence
Examining Fragments
Evidence Recovery
Physical Evidence
Postblast Investigative Process
Mini Case Studies
Hostage/Kidnapping Aftermath
The Dangers Involved
The Immediate Reaction of Victims
Long-Term Reactions
The Family
Police Handling of the Incident
The Stockholm Syndrome
When an Incident May End in the Use of Deadly
Physical Force
Ransom: To Pay or Not to Pay?
Making the Payoff
The Recovery
Historical Background
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Courses of Action
Immediate Postincident Reaction
Longer-Term Reaction
Returning to Normal
Postincident Effects on Rescue Officers
Surviving Hostage-Taking Situations
Follow Instructions
Try to Rest
Escape? Should You or Shouldn’t You?
Be Observant
Don’t Be Argumentative
Be Patient
Get Rid of Items That Single You Out
Interviewing Victims
Frank Ochberg
Intrusive Recollections
Emotional Anesthesia: Constricting Life Activity
Lowered Threshold for Anxiety and Arousal
PTSD Is Not Always the Same
Who Gets PTSD?
Other Difficulties
A Guide to Interviewing
Setting the Stage
Eliciting Emotion
Informed Consent
Stages of Response
The Humanitarian Role of the Investigator
Secondary Traumatic Stress Disorder
Role of the Commander
Who’s in Charge?
Preincident: Developing Guidelines
Makeup of the Team
Maintenance of Manpower and Equipment
Keeping Up-to-Date on New Developments and Strategies
Evaluate and Update
Liaisons with Other Agencies
During the Incident: Intelligence Gathering
Evaluate Alternatives
Chemical Agents
Alcohol and Drugs
Contain and Negotiate
Impact of the Events on the Public
Postincident Debriefing
Formal Debriefing
Evaluate New Developments and Outcomes
Case History: Russian Theater Takeover
Panic Reaction
Negotiations at the Theater
Tactical Preparations
Chemical Agents
Rescue/Dynamic Entry
Russian Hostage Litigation
Theater Reopens
Continued Terrorism
The Command Post
The Nerve Center
Forward Command Post
Mobilization Point
Point of Negotiation
Staffing the Command Post
Bomb Incident Command Post
Log and Situation Map
Equipment and Supplies
Concealment vs. Cover
Handling the Media
Counterterrorism Command Center
Appendix A: Government-Sponsored Terrorism
Appendix B: Foreign Terrorist Organizations

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"This book is a must read for anyone involved in leadership positions at all levels of federal, state, or local governments or private organizations involved in the support of War on Terror operations."
—Paul E. Vallely, MG, US Army (Retired); Fox News Channel Military Analyst

"A comprehensive account of the nature and magnitude of the origins, causes, aims, tactics, weapons and tactics of terrorism and the strategies and techniques required for effective counterterrorism, such as establishing command and control, intelligence mechanisms (e.g., surveillance), managing bombing and hostage-taking incidents, and interviewing victims. The authors are veteran homeland security and law enforcement practitioners, making this an indispensable and authoritative reference resource for those involved in counterterrorism, whether in public safety or analytic communities."
—Joshua Sinai, Perspectives on Terrorism