4th Edition

The Counterterrorism Handbook Tactics, Procedures, and Techniques, Fourth Edition

    530 Pages 44 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Terrorists constantly present new challenges to law enforcement, emergency response teams, security planners, and others involved in counterterrorism. Since the last edition of this volume was published, additional atrocities have occurred and new threats have surfaced. The fourth edition of The Counterterrorism Handbook: Tactics, Procedures, and Techniques provides the latest developments and offers new insights on the War on Terror.

    Updated to reflect an increased focus on terrorism in public transportation, this volume provides an understanding of the strategies, tactics, and techniques required to tackle terrorism as it exists today. It illustrates essential topics such as the elements common to all terrorism, bomb threats, risk assessment, hostages, and weapons of mass destruction. It also presents case studies of some of the most notorious terrorist incidents, including both World Trade Center attacks, Oklahoma City, Centennial Olympic Park, the U.S. Embassy, the U.S.S. Cole, and attacks in Madrid, London, and Glasgow.

    The only way to effectively deal with terrorism is to have a thorough understanding of its present-day characteristics — who is involved and what weapons and tactics they are likely to use. In language friendly to first responders, this volume presents a comprehensive strategy of how to deal with a whole gamut of possible terrorist incidents. Covering everything from bombings and hostage-taking to nuclear terrorism, the book describes in specific detail what needs to be done before, during, and after an event. Armed with this information, those charged with protecting the public will be better equipped to face myriad threats.

    Terrorism: An Overview

    New Game
    Global War on Terrorism
    Meaning of Terrorism
    What Is Terrorism?
    Brief History of Terrorism
    Terrorism in the United Kingdom
    Modern Terrorist Groups
    Terrorism as a Political Statement
    The Nature of Terrorism
    Characteristics of Terrorism
    Financial Terrorism
    Terrorist Actions
    Other Terrorist Actions
    Intimidation and Threats
    Disinformation and Propaganda
    Common Elements of Terrorism
    Purpose of Terrorism
    Modern Terrorist Groups
    Why Terrorists Succeed
    Democratic Legal System
    Access to Arms
    Vulnerability of Targets
    Counterterrorist Response
    Weapons of Mass Destruction
    Role of the Military
    Homeland Defense
    Implementation of Homeland Security
    Organizing Homeland Security
    Border and Transportation Security
    Emergency Preparedness and Response
    Science and Technology
    Information and Infrastructure Protection
    Task Force Initiatives
    Local Law Enforcement Capabilities
    Local Significance
    Private Sector Cooperation
    Terror Defense Planning
    Introduction to Risk Assessment
    Security Advisory System
    Structuring a Preincident Plan
    Information Gathering
    Target Profiles
    Target Analysis
    Terrorist Tactics
    The Suburban Threat
    Risk Analysis
    Risk Avoidance
    Hostage/Kidnap Defense
    Bomb Defense Planning
    Bomb Incidents
    The Bomb Threat
    Rationale of Bomb Threats
    A Note of Warning
    Warning or Hoax?
    Taking a Bomb Threat Call
    Bomb Threat Decision Making
    Evacuation Options
    Evacuation Procedure Overview
    Putting Out the Message
    Planning Issues
    Bomb Threats and the Police
    The Bomb: Terrorist Weapon of Choice
    Types of Bombers
    Motivation of Bombers
    Hostage Situations
    A Rare Occurrence
    Who Takes Hostages?
    Panic Reaction
    Suicide by Cop
    Why Hostages Are Taken
    The Magic Triangle
    Munich, 1972
    Killing on Deadline
    Responsibilities of the First Responding Officers
    The Mobilization Point
    Location of the Mobilization Point
    Decision Makers
    Keeping Track of People
    Start Intelligence Gathering
    Inner Perimeter
    Tactical Units
    First Response Review
    Kidnapping as a Weapon
    Risks Involved
    Differences between Hostage Taking and Kidnapping
    Uses of Kidnapping
    Types of Kidnappers
    Post-Cold War Political Kidnapping
    Domestic Spousal Confrontation/Emotionally Disturbed
    During and after the U.S. Operation in Iraq
    Private Industry’s Role
    The Police Role
    Police Response to Residence or Workplace of Victim
    Response to the Kidnap/Extortion Threat
    "Do Not Contact the Police"
    Prevention Tactics
    What the Individual Can Do
    Journalists Do Not Have Exemptions
    What the Family Can Do
    One Man’s Ordeal
    What the Corporation Can Do
    On Becoming a Victim
    Terrorism on Public Transportation
    Dorothy Moses Schulz
    Where Are Terrorists Likely to Strike?
    Transit as a Target—Vulnerable and Attractive
    Overlapping Jurisdictions Complicate Response Efforts
    A Brief Case Study—Virginia Metro Incident
    Terrorists and Criminals Ride the Rails
    Freight Trains Are Also Targets
    International Rail Transit Terrorism
    Chechen Separatists Target the Moscow Subway System
    Gas and Arson Attacks
    Buses—Mobile Explosives and Hostage Sites
    Waterborne Terrorism
    Attacks and Hijackings
    Piracy—Updating an Old Crime to New Purposes
    Weapons of Mass Destruction
    A Long History
    Definition of Weapons of Mass Destruction
    The Threat Today
    Aum Shinrikyo Incident
    U.S. Anthrax Attack
    Chemical and Biological Agents
    Transmission of Infectious Agents
    Chemical Agents
    Common Nerve Agents
    Blood Agents
    Blister (Mustard) Agents
    Choking/Lung/Pulmonary Agents
    Riot Control
    Common Terms Associated with Biological Agents
    Common Biological Agents: Class A
    Common Biological Agents: Class B
    Common Biological Agents: Class C
    Other Biological Agents
    Nuclear Weapons
    Response to a WMD Incident
    First Responders
    Federal Assistance
    Local Initiatives
    Protective Gear Requirements for WMD Response
    Domestic Terrorism
    Leaderless Groups and Lone Wolves
    Discovery Channel Hostages
    Other Ecoterror Groups
    Animal Rights Groups
    Animal Liberation Front
    Food Fights
    ALF Lone Wolf
    Islamic Lone Wolves
    Abortion Clinic Violence
    Contemporary Homegrown Islamic Terrorists
    Non-Islamic Homegrown Contemporary Terrorists
    Early Homegrown Terrorists
    Using America as a Battleground
    Bomb Searches
    General Concepts
    Building Searches
    Exterior Searches
    Interior Searches
    Search Teams
    Setting Up a Program
    Alternative to Search Teams
    Mechanics of the Search
    Room Search
    Common Bomb Placement Locations
    Vehicle Search
    Antipersonnel Car Bombs
    Vehicle-Borne Explosive Devices
    Aircraft Searches
    Preincident Executive Search
    Explosive Detection Canines
    Suspected Packages
    Energetic Materials and Explosive Devices
    Energetic Materials
    Explosives Defined
    Types of High Explosives
    Identifying Improvised Explosive Devices
    Firing Train
    Initiation Systems
    IED Packaging
    Characteristics of Military Ordnance
    Hostage Incidents
    What Is Involved
    Communicating with the Hostage Taker
    The Making of a Hostage Incident
    The Announcement
    Reaction of Law Enforcement Professionals
    The Application of Time
    Criminal Role
    Police Role
    Evacuation and Intelligence
    Advances in Technology in Gathering Intelligence
    Why Police Do the Negotiating
    Postincident Crisis Intervention Teams
    Controlling the Environment
    Dynamics of Hostage Negotiation
    Gathering Intelligence of the Hostage Taker
    Words and Phrases
    A Note on Weapons
    Saying No
    The Art of Negotiation
    Courses of Action
    The Surrender and Suicide Ritual
    Thought Interruption
    Never Take a Weapon from the Hand of a Surrendering
    Special Qualifications
    Certification of Hostage Negotiators
    Transportation Terrorism Countermeasures
    Dorothy Moses Schulz
    Tabletop Exercises
    Public Information and Outreach
    Employee Information, Outreach, and Training
    Emergency Responder Information, Outreach, and Training
    Patrol by Uniformed and Plainclothes Police/Security Officers
    Behavioral Recognition
    Canine Teams
    Passenger and Baggage Screening
    Surveillance Technology
    Redesigning and Minimizing Station Furniture
    Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED)
    Protecting America’s Ports
    Deterring Piracy
    Postblast Environment
    Getting Back to Normal
    The Incident
    Types of Explosions
    First Responders
    Search and Rescue Phase
    Command Post Operations
    Blast Damage
    Types of Building Collapses
    SAR Marking Systems
    Exterior Marking
    Investigative Phase
    Search Equipment
    Establishing the Parameters of the Investigation
    Preliminary Actions
    Seat of the Explosion
    Gathering Physical Evidence
    Examining Fragments
    Evidence Recovery
    Physical Evidence
    Postblast Investigative Process
    Mini Case Studies
    Hostage/Kidnapping Aftermath
    The Dangers Involved
    The Immediate Reaction of Victims
    Long-Term Reactions
    The Family
    Police Handling of the Incident
    The Stockholm Syndrome
    When an Incident May End in the Use of Deadly
    Physical Force
    Ransom: To Pay or Not to Pay?
    Making the Payoff
    The Recovery
    Historical Background
    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    Courses of Action
    Immediate Postincident Reaction
    Longer-Term Reaction
    Returning to Normal
    Postincident Effects on Rescue Officers
    Surviving Hostage-Taking Situations
    Follow Instructions
    Try to Rest
    Escape? Should You or Shouldn’t You?
    Be Observant
    Don’t Be Argumentative
    Be Patient
    Get Rid of Items That Single You Out
    Interviewing Victims
    Frank Ochberg
    Intrusive Recollections
    Emotional Anesthesia: Constricting Life Activity
    Lowered Threshold for Anxiety and Arousal
    PTSD Is Not Always the Same
    Who Gets PTSD?
    Other Difficulties
    A Guide to Interviewing
    Setting the Stage
    Eliciting Emotion
    Informed Consent
    Stages of Response
    The Humanitarian Role of the Investigator
    Secondary Traumatic Stress Disorder
    Role of the Commander
    Who’s in Charge?
    Preincident: Developing Guidelines
    Makeup of the Team
    Maintenance of Manpower and Equipment
    Keeping Up-to-Date on New Developments and Strategies
    Evaluate and Update
    Liaisons with Other Agencies
    During the Incident: Intelligence Gathering
    Evaluate Alternatives
    Chemical Agents
    Alcohol and Drugs
    Contain and Negotiate
    Impact of the Events on the Public
    Postincident Debriefing
    Formal Debriefing
    Evaluate New Developments and Outcomes
    Case History: Russian Theater Takeover
    Panic Reaction
    Negotiations at the Theater
    Tactical Preparations
    Chemical Agents
    Rescue/Dynamic Entry
    Russian Hostage Litigation
    Theater Reopens
    Continued Terrorism
    The Command Post
    The Nerve Center
    Forward Command Post
    Mobilization Point
    Point of Negotiation
    Staffing the Command Post
    Bomb Incident Command Post
    Log and Situation Map
    Equipment and Supplies
    Concealment vs. Cover
    Handling the Media
    Counterterrorism Command Center
    Appendix A: Government-Sponsored Terrorism
    Appendix B: Foreign Terrorist Organizations


    Jr. Bolz, Kenneth J. Dudonis, David P. Schulz

    "This book is a must read for anyone involved in leadership positions at all levels of federal, state, or local governments or private organizations involved in the support of War on Terror operations."
    —Paul E. Vallely, MG, US Army (Retired); Fox News Channel Military Analyst

    "A comprehensive account of the nature and magnitude of the origins, causes, aims, tactics, weapons and tactics of terrorism and the strategies and techniques required for effective counterterrorism, such as establishing command and control, intelligence mechanisms (e.g., surveillance), managing bombing and hostage-taking incidents, and interviewing victims. The authors are veteran homeland security and law enforcement practitioners, making this an indispensable and authoritative reference resource for those involved in counterterrorism, whether in public safety or analytic communities."
    —Joshua Sinai, Perspectives on Terrorism