The Crusades is an area of rapidly expanding interest. Students increasingly see an understanding of the roots of religious violence and of interaction between Christian and Islamic cultures as a critical tool for citizenship in the modern world. This is borne out by the large number of general books written on crusading, from ‘popular’ narrative histories to more academic analyses. Not even the best general survey, however, can afford the level of detailed argument based on careful analysis of evidence that can be presented in a more narrowly focused article or essay. This collection makes available a group of carefully selected articles which, taken together, develop themes and problematics in crusading history.
Articles include the papal reform movement, the development of a theory of holy war, the Reconquista in Spain, the theology of penance, pilgrimage and devotion to the Holy Land, the Seljuqs and the political dynamics of the Near East in the late 11th century, military and logistical technologies in crusading, the Islamic response under Nur ad-Din and Saladin and the fall of Jerusalem in 1187, the fall of the Ayyubid dynasty and the rise of the Mamluks, the emergence of the Mongols, the kingdom of Cyprus, the fall of the Crusader States 1260s-1291, crusading in the later Middle Ages, the treatment of indigenous peoples under western rule, the development of crusader visual culture in the east, church building, castles, settlement patterns and the economy of the crusader states.
Comprehensively indexed and with an introduction by the editor, a leading expert in the field, The Crusades is a key work of reference destined to be an essential research and teaching resource.
Table of Contents
VOLUME I: CONTEXTS: THE WEST AND THE MEDITERRANEAN WORLD IN THE ELEVENTH CENTURY 1. Ernest O. Blake, ‘The Formation of the "Crusade" Idea’ 2. Marcus Bull, ‘The Roots of Lay Enthusiasm for the First Crusade’ 3. Giles Constable, ‘The Historiography of the Crusades’ 4. H. E. J. Cowdrey, ‘The Reform Papacy and the Origin of the Crusades’ 5. H. E. J. Cowdrey, ‘The Peace and the Truce of God in the Eleventh Century’ 6. Richard Fletcher, ‘Reconquest and Crusade in Spain c. 1050–1150’ 7. Bernard Hamilton, ‘Knowing the Enemy: Western Understanding of Islam at the Time of the Crusades’ 8. Michael Hendy, ‘Byzantium 1081–1204: An Economic Reappraisal’ 9. Donald Nicol, ‘Byzantium and the Papacy in the Eleventh Century’ 10. Jonathan Riley-Smith, ‘An Approach to Crusading Ethics’1 11. I. S. Robinson, ‘Gregory VII and the Soldiers of Christ’ 12. Claude Cahen, ‘An Introduction to the First Crusade’. VOLUME II: CRUSADING AND THE CRUSADER STATES, 1095–1197: THE FIRST CRUSADE 13. H. E. J. Cowdrey, ‘Pope Urban II’s Preaching of the First Crusade’ 14. John France, ‘Patronage and the Appeal of the First Crusade’ 15. Walter Porges, ‘The Clergy, the Poor and Non-Combatants on the First Crusade’ 16. Jonathan Shepard, ‘Cross-Purposes: Alexius Comnenus and the First Crusade’ 17. Giles Constable, ‘Medieval Charters as a Source for the History of the Crusades’ 18. Michael Markowski, ‘Crucesignatus: Its Origins and Early Usage’ 19. Christopher Tyerman, ‘Were there any Crusades in the Twelfth Century?’ 20. Colin Morris, ‘Propaganda for War: The Dissemination of the Crusading Ideal in the Twelfth Century’ 21. Jonathan Riley-Smith, ‘The Idea of Crusading in the Charters of Early Crusaders, 1095–1102’. POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN THE CRUSADER STATES, 1099–1187 22. Peter Edbury, ‘Propaganda and Faction in the Kingdom of Jerusalem: The Background to Hattin’ 23. Alan V. Murray, ‘Dynastic Continuity or Dynastic Change? The Accession of Baldwin II and the Nobility of the Kingdom of Jerusalem’ 24. R. C. Smail, ‘Latin Syria and the West, 1149–1187’ 25. Alan Forey, ‘The Military Orders and the Spanish Reconquest in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries’ 26. Malcolm Barber, ‘The Origins of the Order of the Temple’ THE SECOND CRUSADE 27. Giles Constable, ‘The Second Crusade as Seen by Contemporaries’ 28. Harold Livermore, ‘The Conquest of Lisbon and its Author’ 29. Jonathan Phillips, ‘St Bernard of Clairvaux, the Low Countries and the Lisbon Letter of the Second Crusade’ SALADIN AND THE THIRD CRUSADE 30. George B. Flahiff, ‘Deus Non Vult: A Critic of the Third Crusade’ 31. Peter Holt, ‘Saladin and His Admirers: A Biographical Reassessment’ 32. Michael Markowski, ‘Richard Lionheart: Bad King, Bad Crusader?’ 33. Donald S. Richards, ‘The Early History of Saladin’ VOLUME III: CRUSADING AND THE CRUSADER STATES, 1198–1336: INNOCENT III, THE FOURTH CRUSADE, AND FRANKISH GREECE 34. Michael Angold, ‘The Road to 1204: The Byzantine Background to the Fourth Crusade’ 35. Malcolm Barber, ‘Western Attitudes to Frankish Greece’ 36. Brenda Bolton, ‘"Serpent in the Dust, Sparrow on the Housetop": Attitudes to Jerusalem and the Holy Land in the Circle of Innocent III’ 37. David Jacoby, ‘The Encounter of Two Societies: Western Conquerors and Byzantines in the Peloponnesus after the Fourth Crusade’ 38. Elizabeth M. Kennan, ‘Innocent III and the First Political Crusade: A Comment on the Limitations of Papal Power’ 39. Thomas F. Madden, ‘Outside and Inside the Fourth Crusade’ 40. James M. Powell, ‘Innocent III and the Crusade’ 41. Donald Queller, Thomas Compton, and Donald Campbell, ‘The Fourth Crusade: the Neglected Majority’ CRUSADING AND THE CRUSADER STATES IN THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY 42. Peter Jackson, ‘The Crusades of 1239–41 and their Aftermath’ 43. Peter Jackson, ‘The Crusade Against the Mongols (1241)’ 44. M. Purcell, ‘Changing Views of Crusade in the Thirteenth Century’ 45. Peter Raedts, ‘The Children’s Crusade of 1212’ 46. Bjorn Weiler, ‘The Negotium Terrae Sanctae in the Political Discourse of Latin Christendom, 1215–1311’ THE LATER CRUSADES 47. Norman Housley, ‘Politics and Heresy in Italy: Anti-Heretical Crusaders, Orders and Confraternities, 1200–1500’ 48. Norman Housley, ‘Costing the Crusade: Budgeting for Crusading Activity in the Fourteenth Century’ 49. Christoph Maier, ‘Crisis, Liturgy and the Crusade in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries’ 50. Sylvia Schein, ‘The Future Regnum Hierusalem: A Chapter in Medieval State Planning’ 51. Elizabeth Siberry, ‘Missionaries and Crusaders 1095–1274: Opponents or Allies?’ 52. Joseph Strayer, ‘The Crusade against Aragon’ 53. Christopher J. Tyerman, ‘Philip VI and the Recovery of the Holy Land’ 54. Malcolm Barber, ‘The Pastoureaux of 1320’ VOLUME IV: CRUSADING CULTURES: SETTLEMENT AND SOCIETY IN THE CRUSADER STATES 55. Peter Edbury, ‘Fiefs and Vassals in the Kingdom of Jerusalem: from the Twelfth Century to the Thirteenth’ 56. Peter W. Edbury, ‘The State of Research: Cyprus under the Lusignans and Venetians, 1991–1998’ 57. Ronnie Ellenblum, ‘Three Generations of Frankish Castle-Building in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem’ 58. Andrew Jotischky, ‘Ethnographic Attitudes in the Crusader States: The Franks and the Indigenous Orthodox People’ 59. Benjamin Z. Kedar and Muhammad al-Hajjuj, ‘Muslim Villagers of the Frankish Kingdom of Jerusalem: Some Demographic and Onomastic Data’ 60. Benjamin Z. Kedar, ‘Gerard of Nazareth, A Neglected Twelfth-Century Writer of the Latin East: A Contribution to the Cultural History of the Crusader States’ 61. Benjamin Z. Kedar, ‘On the Origins of the Earliest Laws of Frankish Jerusalem: The Canons of the Council of Nablus, 1120’ 62. Benjamin Z. Kedar, ‘Latins and Oriental Christians in the Frankish Levant, 1099–1291 63. Denys Pringle, ‘Churches and Settlement in Crusader Palestine’ 64. Denys Pringle, ‘Magna Mahumeria (al-Bira): The Archaeology of a Frankish New Town in Palestine’ 65. Jonathan Riley-Smith, ‘Government in Latin Syria and the Commercial Privileges of Foreign Merchants’. 66. Jonathan Riley-Smith, ‘The Survival in Latin Palestine of Muslim Administration’ THE VISUAL CULTURE OF THE CRUSADER STATES 67. Jaroslav Folda, ‘Crusader Art in the Twelfth Century: Reflections on Christian Multiculturalism in the Levant’ 68. Lucy-Anne Hunt, ‘Art and Colonialism: The Mosaics of the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem (1169) and the Problem of "Crusader" Art’ 69. Anne Marie Weyl Carr, ‘Art in the Court of Lusignan Cyprus’ WESTERN PERSPECTIVES ON CRUSADING 70. Natasha Hodgson, ‘Nobility, Women and Historical Narratives of the Crusades and the Latin East’ 71. Christoph T. Maier, ‘The Role of Women in the Crusade Movement: A Survey’ 72. Emma Mason, ‘Fact and Fiction in the English Crusading Tradition: the Earls of Warwick in the Twelfth Century’ 73. Axel Ehlers, ‘The Crusade of the Teutonic Knights Against Lithuania Reconsidered’74. William Urban, ‘The Teutonic Order and the Christianization of Lithuania’ 75. Thomas Lindkvist, ‘Crusades and Crusading Ideology in the Political History of Sweden, 1140–1500’