1856 Pages
    by Routledge

    The Crusades is an area of rapidly expanding interest. Students increasingly see an understanding of the roots of religious violence and of interaction between Christian and Islamic cultures as a critical tool for citizenship in the modern world. This is borne out by the large number of general books written on crusading, from ‘popular’ narrative histories to more academic analyses. Not even the best general survey, however, can afford the level of detailed argument based on careful analysis of evidence that can be presented in a more narrowly focused article or essay. This collection makes available a group of carefully selected articles which, taken together, develop themes and problematics in crusading history.

    Articles include the papal reform movement, the development of a theory of holy war, the Reconquista in Spain, the theology of penance, pilgrimage and devotion to the Holy Land, the Seljuqs and the political dynamics of the Near East in the late 11th century, military and logistical technologies in crusading, the Islamic response under Nur ad-Din and Saladin and the fall of Jerusalem in 1187, the fall of the Ayyubid dynasty and the rise of the Mamluks, the emergence of the Mongols, the kingdom of Cyprus, the fall of the Crusader States 1260s-1291, crusading in the later Middle Ages, the treatment of indigenous peoples under western rule, the development of crusader visual culture in the east, church building, castles, settlement patterns and the economy of the crusader states.

    Comprehensively indexed and with an introduction by the editor, a leading expert in the field, The Crusades is a key work of reference destined to be an essential research and teaching resource.

    Volume I: Contexts: The West and the Mediterranean World in the eleventh Century

    1. Ernest O. Blake, ‘The Formation of the "Crusade" Idea’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 21, 1 (1970), 11–31.

    2. Marcus Bull, ‘The Roots of Lay Enthusiasm for the First Crusade’, History: The Journal of the Historical Association, 78, 254 (1993), 353–72.

    3. Giles Constable, ‘The Historiography of the Crusades’, in Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh (eds.), The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World (Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001), pp. 1–22.

    4. H. E. J. Cowdrey, ‘The Reform Papacy and the Origin of the Crusades’, in Conseil Regional d’Auvergne (ed.), Le concile de Clermont de 1095 et l’appel a la croisade: actes du Colloque universitaire international de Clermont-Ferrand (23–25 juin 1995), Collection de l’Ecole française de Rome, no. 236 (Rome: Ecole française de Rome, Palais Farnese, 1997), 65–83.

    5. H. E. J. Cowdrey, ‘The Peace and the Truce of God in the Eleventh Century’, Past & Present, 46 (1970), 42–67.

    6. Richard Fletcher, ‘Reconquest and Crusade in Spain c. 1050–1150’, Royal Historical Society Transactions, 5, 37, (1987), 31–47.

    7. Bernard Hamilton, ‘Knowing the Enemy: Western Understanding of Islam at the Time of the Crusades’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 7 (1997), 373–87.

    8. Michael Hendy, ‘Byzantium 1081–1204: An Economic Reappraisal’, Royal Historical Society Transactions, 5, 20, (1970), 31–52.

    9. Donald Nicol, ‘Byzantium and the Papacy in the Eleventh Century’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 13 (1962), 1–20.

    10. Jonathan Riley-Smith, ‘An Approach to Crusading Ethics’, Reading Medieval Studies, 6 (1980), 3–19.

    11. I. S. Robinson, ‘Gregory VII and the Soldiers of Christ’, History, 58 (1973), 169–92.

    12. Claude Cahen, ‘An Introduction to the First Crusade’, Past and Present, 6 (1954), 6–30.

    Volume II: Crusading and the Crusader States, 1095–1197

    The First Crusade

    13. H. E. J. Cowdrey, ‘Pope Urban II’s Preaching of the First Crusade’, History, 55, (1970), 177–88.

    14. John France, ‘Patronage and the Appeal of the First Crusade’, in Jonathan Phillips (ed.), The First Crusade. Origins and Impact (Manchester: MUP, 1997), 5–20.

    15. Walter Porges, ‘The Clergy, the Poor and Non-Combatants on the First Crusade’, Speculum, 21 (1946), 1–23.

    16. Jonathan Shepard, ‘Cross-Purposes: Alexius Comnenus and the First Crusade’, in Jonathan Phillips (ed.), The First Crusade: Origins and Impact (Manchester: MUP, 1997), 107–29.

    Crusading Theory and Practice

    17. Giles Constable, ‘Medieval Charters as a Source for the History of the Crusades’, in Peter Edbury (ed.), Crusade and Settlement (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1985), 73–89.

    18. Michael Markowski, ‘Crucesignatus: Its Origins and Early Usage’, Journal of Medieval History, 10 (1984), 157–65.

    19. Christopher Tyerman, ‘Were there any Crusades in the Twelfth Century?’, English Historical Review, 110 (1995), 553–77.

    20. Colin Morris, ‘Propaganda for War: The Dissemination of the Crusading Ideal in the Twelfth Century’, in W. J. Shiels (ed.), The Church and War, Studies in Church History 20 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1983), 79–101.

    21. Jonathan Riley-Smith, ‘The Idea of Crusading in the Charters of Early Crusaders, 1095–1102’, in Le concile de Clermont de 1095 et l’appel a la croisade, Collection de l’école française de Rome 236 (Rome, 1997), 155–66.

    Political Developments in the Crusader States, 1099–1187

    22. Peter Edbury, ‘Propaganda and Faction in the Kingdom of Jerusalem: The Background to Hattin’, in M. Shatzmiller (ed.), Crusaders and Muslims in Twelfth-Century Syria (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1993), 173–89.

    23. Alan V. Murray, ‘Dynastic Continuity or Dynastic Change? The Accession of Baldwin II and the Nobility of the Kingdom of Jerusalem’, Medieval Prosopography, 13 (1992), 1–28.

    24. R. C. Smail, ‘Latin Syria and the West, 1149–1187’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 19 (1969), 1–20.

    25. Alan Forey, ‘The Military Orders and the Spanish Reconquest in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries’, Traditio, 40 (1984), 197–234.

    26. Malcolm Barber, ‘The Origins of the Order of the Temple’, Studia Monastica, 12 (1970), 219–40.

    The Second Crusade

    27. Giles Constable, ‘The Second Crusade as Seen by Contemporaries’, Traditio, 9 (1953), 213–79.

    28. Harold Livermore, ‘The Conquest of Lisbon and its Author’, Portuguese Studies, 6 (1990), 1–16.

    29. Jonathan Phillips, ‘St Bernard of Clairvaux, the Low Countries and the Lisbon Letter of the Second Crusade’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 48 (1997), pp. 485–97.

    Saladin and The Third Crusade

    30. George B. Flahiff, ‘Deus Non Vult: A Critic of the Third Crusade’, Mediaeval Studies, 9 (1947), 162–88.

    31. Peter Holt, ‘Saladin and His Admirers: A Biographical Reassessment’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 46 (1983), 235–9.

    32. Michael Markowski, ‘Richard Lionheart: Bad King, Bad Crusader?’, Journal of Medieval History, 23 (1997), 351–65.

    33. Donald S. Richards, ‘The Early History of Saladin’, Islamic Quarterly, 17 (1973), 140–9.

    Volume III: Crusading and the Crusader States, 1198–1336

    Innocent III, the Fourth Crusade, and Frankish Greece

    34. Michael Angold, ‘The Road to 1204: The Byzantine Background to the Fourth Crusade’, Journal of Medieval History, 25 (1999), 257–78.

    35. Malcolm Barber, ‘Western Attitudes to Frankish Greece’, in B. Arbel, B. Hamilton, and D. Jacoby (eds.), Latins and Greeks in the Eastern Mediterranean after 1204 (London: Frank Cass, 1989), 111–28.

    36. Brenda Bolton, ‘"Serpent in the Dust, Sparrow on the Housetop": Attitudes to Jerusalem and the Holy Land in the Circle of Innocent III’, in R. N. Swanson (ed.), The Holy Land, Holy Lands and Christian History, Studies in Church History, 36 (2000), 154–80.

    37. David Jacoby, ‘The Encounter of Two Societies: Western Conquerors and Byzantines in the Peloponnesus after the Fourth Crusade’, American Historical Review, 78 (1973), 873–906.

    38. Elizabeth M. Kennan, ‘Innocent III and the First Political Crusade: A Comment on the Limitations of Papal Power’, Traditio, 27 (1971), 231–50.

    39. Thomas F. Madden, ‘Outside and Inside the Fourth Crusade’, International History Review, 17 (1995), 726–43.

    40. James M. Powell, ‘Innocent III and the Crusade’, in idem (ed.), Innocent III: Vicar of Christ or Lord of the World? (Washington DC: Catholic University of America, 1994), 121–34.

    41. Donald Queller, Thomas Compton, and Donald Campbell, ‘The Fourth Crusade: the Neglected Majority’, Speculum, 49 (1974), 441–65.

    Crusading and the Crusader States in the Thirteenth Century

    42. Peter Jackson, ‘The Crusades of 1239–41 and their Aftermath’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 50 (1987), 32–60.

    43. Peter Jackson, ‘The Crusade Against the Mongols (1241)’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 42 (1991), 1–18.

    44. M. Purcell, ‘Changing Views of Crusade in the Thirteenth Century’, Journal of Religious History, 2 (1972), 3–19.

    45. Peter Raedts, ‘The Children’s Crusade of 1212’, Journal of Medieval History, 3 (1977), 279–323.

    46. Bjorn Weiler, ‘The Negotium Terrae Sanctae in the Political Discourse of Latin Christendom, 1215–1311’, International History Review, 25 (2003), 1–36.

    The Later Crusades

    47. Norman Housley, ‘Politics and Heresy in Italy: Anti-Heretical Crusaders, Orders and Confraternities, 1200–1500’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 33 (1982), 193–208.

    48. Norman Housley, ‘Costing the Crusade: Budgeting for Crusading Activity in the Fourteenth Century’, in Housley and M. Bull (eds.), The Experience of Crusading I: Western Approaches (2003), 45–59.

    49. Christoph Maier, ‘Crisis, Liturgy and the Crusade in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 48 (1997), 628–57.

    50. Sylvia Schein, ‘The Future Regnum Hierusalem: A Chapter in Medieval State Planning’, Journal of Medieval History, 10 (1984), 95–105.

    51. Elizabeth Siberry, ‘Missionaries and Crusaders 1095–1274: Opponents or Allies?’, Studies in Church History, 20 (1983), 103–10.

    52. Joseph Strayer, ‘The Crusade against Aragon’, Speculum, 28 (1953), 102–13.

    53. Christopher J. Tyerman, ‘Philip VI and the Recovery of the Holy Land’, English Historical Review, 100 (1985), 25–52.

    54. Malcolm Barber, ‘The Pastoureaux of 1320’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 32 (1981), 143–66.

    Volume IV: Crusading Cultures

    Settlement and Society in the Crusader States

    55. Peter Edbury, ‘Fiefs and Vassals in the Kingdom of Jerusalem: from the Twelfth Century to the Thirteenth’, Crusades, 1 (2002), 49–62.

    56. Peter W. Edbury, ‘The State of Research: Cyprus under the Lusignans and Venetians, 1991–1998’, Journal of Medieval History, 25 (1999), 57–65.

    57. Ronnie Ellenblum, ‘Three Generations of Frankish Castle-Building in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem’, in Michel Balard (ed.), Autour de la première croisade, Byzantina Sorbonensia 14 (Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 1996), 517–51.

    58. Andrew Jotischky, ‘Ethnographic Attitudes in the Crusader States: The Franks and the Indigenous Orthodox People’, in Krijnie Ciggaar and Herman Teule (eds.), East and West in the Crusader States: Context, Contacts, Confrontations, III, Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 125 (Leuven, 2003), 1–19.

    59. Benjamin Z. Kedar and Muhammad al-Hajjuj, ‘Muslim Villagers of the Frankish Kingdom of Jerusalem: Some Demographic and Onomastic Data’, Itinéraires d’Orient. Hommages a Claude Cahen. Res Orientales VI (1994).

    60. Benjamin Z. Kedar, ‘Gerard of Nazareth, A Neglected Twelfth-Century Writer of the Latin East: A Contribution to the Cultural History of the Crusader States’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 37 (1983), 55–77.

    61. Benjamin Z. Kedar, ‘On the Origins of the Earliest Laws of Frankish Jerusalem: The Canons of the Council of Nablus, 1120’, Speculum, 74, (1999), 310–35.

    62. Benjamin Z. Kedar, ‘Latins and Oriental Christians in the Frankish Levant, 1099–1291’, in Arieh Kofsky and Guy G. Stroumsa (eds.), Sharing the Sacred: Religious Contacts and Conflicts in the Holy Land. First-Fifteenth Centuries CE (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1998), 209–22.

    63. Denys Pringle, ‘Churches and Settlement in Crusader Palestine’, in P. W. Edbury and J. P. Phillips (eds.), The Experience of Crusading, Vol. 2. Defining the Crusader Kingdom (Cambridge: CUP, 2003), 161–78.

    64. Denys Pringle, ‘Magna Mahumeria (al-Bira): The Archaeology of a Frankish New Town in Palestine’, in Peter Edbury (ed.), Crusade and Settlement (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1985), 147–68.

    65. Jonathan Riley-Smith, ‘Government in Latin Syria and the Commercial Privileges of Foreign Merchants’, in Derek Baker (ed.), Relations Between East and West in the Middle Ages (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1973), 109–32.

    66. Jonathan Riley-Smith, ‘The Survival in Latin Palestine of Muslim Administration’, in Peter Holt (ed.), The East Mediterranean Lands in the Period of the Crusades (Warminster: Aris and Phillips, 1977), 9–22.

    The Visual Culture of the Crusader States

    67. Jaroslav Folda, ‘Crusader Art in the Twelfth Century: Reflections on Christian Multiculturalism in the Levant’, Mediterranean History Review, 10 (1995), 80–91.

    68. Lucy-Anne Hunt, ‘Art and Colonialism: The Mosaics of the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem (1169) and the Problem of "Crusader" Art’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 45 (1991), 69–85.

    69. Anne Marie Weyl Carr, ‘Art in the Court of Lusignan Cyprus’, in Nicholas Coureas and Jonathan Riley-Smith (ed.), Cyprus and the Crusades (Nicosia: Cyprus Research Centre and Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East, 1994), 239–74.

    Western Perspectives on Crusading

    70. Natasha Hodgson, ‘Nobility, Women and Historical Narratives of the Crusades and the Latin East’, Al-Masaq, 17 (2005), 61–85.

    71. Christoph T. Maier, ‘The Role of Women in the Crusade Movement: A Survey’, Journal of Medieval History, 30 (2004), 61–82.

    72. Emma Mason, ‘Fact and Fiction in the English Crusading Tradition: the Earls of Warwick in the Twelfth Century’, Journal of Medieval History, 14 (1988), 81–95.

    73. Axel Ehlers, ‘The Crusade of the Teutonic Knights Against Lithuania Reconsidered’, in Alan V. Murray (ed.), Crusade and Conversion on the Baltic Frontier, 1150–1500 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001), 21–44.

    74. William Urban, ‘The Teutonic Order and the Christianization of Lithuania’, in La Cristianizzazione della Lituania. Atti del Colloquio internazionale di storia ecclesiastica in occasione del VI centenario della Lituania cristiana, Roma, 24–26 giugno 1987 (Pontifico Comitato di scienze storiche: Atti e documenti, 2) (Città del Vaticano: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1989), 105–35.

    75. Thomas Lindkvist, ‘Crusades and Crusading Ideology in the Political History of Sweden, 1140–1500’, in Alan V. Murray (ed.), Crusade and Conversion on the Baltic Frontier, 1150–1500 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001), 119–30.


    Andrew Jotischky is Senior Lecturer in History at Lancaster University, UK. He is the author of Crusading and the Crusader States, The Carmelites and Antiquity and The Perfection of Solitude: Hermits and Monks in the Crusader States as well as numerous articles on aspects of cultural and religious interaction in the Crusader States.