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9th Edition

The Cultural Dimension of Global Business




  • Available for pre-order on May 16, 2023. Item will ship after June 6, 2023
ISBN 9781032101989
June 6, 2023 Forthcoming by Routledge
354 Pages 74 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Now in its ninth edition, The Cultural Dimension of Global Business continues to provide an essential foundation for understanding the impact of culture on global business and global business on culture. The highly experienced authors demonstrate how the theory and insights of cultural anthropology can positively influence the conduct of global business, examining a range of issues that individuals and organizations face as they work globally and across cultures. The cross-cultural scenarios presented in each chapter allow students of business, management, and anthropology alike to explore cultural difference while gaining valuable practice in thinking through a variety of complex and thorny cultural issues. 

The fully updated ninth edition offers:
• An expanded focus on international perspectives, and greater insight into China and its emergence as a global economic power

• Consideration of team interactions in complex global environments, including virtually, while recognizing that individuals have critical influence on business processes and outcomes

• New methodological tools with reflections and exercises to inspire readers to begin thinking and acting globally, offering guidance on identifying salient features of an international business or partnership, adjusting to novel or unexpected circumstances, and capturing the perceptions and behaviors of global businesspeople

• New chapters on understanding one’s own organizational culture as a precursor to conducting business globally, additional material to enhance business partnership interactions, and strategies for integrating the global into local operations

• Discussion of the wide-ranging disruptions facing people and business around the world and the ways in which the global pandemic affected business processes and practices

• Further resources via a companion website, including an Instructor’s Manual and interactive quiz questions for students

 

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements

Preface

1. Cultural Anthropology and Global Business

GLOBAL BUSINESS: CONNECTIONS AND DISRUPTIONS

THE PERSPECTIVE OF CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY AND THE BUSINESS SECTOR

Business anthropology

The value of taking culture into account

ANTHROPOLOGY’S MAJOR CONCEPT: CULTURE

Culture as process

Culture is learned

Culture influences biological processes

Cultural universals

Economic systems

Kinship systems

Educational systems

Social control systems

Supernatural belief systems

Cultural change

People from all cultures are ethnocentric

Cultures are integrated wholes

CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN BUSINESS: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

CROSS-CULTURAL SCENARIOS

2. Lenses for Understanding Culture and Cultural Differences

CULTURAL THEMES

Characterization

Reach

Transformation

Relative stability

METAPHORS

Value alignment

Organizational status

DRAWINGS

A method

Roles

CHANGE

Unforeseen change

Cyclical change

CONTEXT

National culture differences

Corporate culture differences

CONTRASTING VALUES

The individual–collective dimension

How individualism-collectivism plays out in individual-oriented cultures

How individualism–collectivism plays out in collective-oriented cultures

Implications for business

The equality–hierarchy dimension

How equality-hierarchy plays out in egalitarian cultures

How equality–hierarchy plays out in hierarchical cultures

Implications for business

The change orientation dimension

How orientations to change play out in change-embracing cultures

How orientations to change play out in change-fearing cultures

Implications for business

The time orientation dimension

Precise versus loose reckoning of time

Sequential versus synchronized time

How time orientation plays out

In precise/sequential-oriented cultures

In loose/synchronized-oriented cultures

Past, present, and future orientations

How time orientation plays out

In past-oriented cultures

In present-oriented cultures

In future-oriented cultures

The busyness factor

How time orientation plays out in busy cultures

Implications for business

CONCLUSION

CROSS-CULTURAL SCENARIOS

3. Communicating Nonverbally across Cultures

THE NATURE OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION

Types of nonverbal communication

Potential pitfalls in studying nonverbal communication

BUSINESS INTRODUCTIONS

Business card exchange

Bowing

Gift giving

INTERACTIONS AMONG BUSINESSPEOPLE

Body posture

Gaze

Hand gestures

Facial expressions

Dress

Proxemics

Personal space

Public space and work

Visual media

CONCLUSION

CROSS-CULTURAL SCENARIOS

4. Communicating across Cultures Using Language

THE IDEAL OF LINGUISTIC PROFICIENCY IN GLOBAL BUSINESS

Defining language

Communicate more, misunderstand less, partner better

Cultural competence is essential too!

Need a reason to learn a foreign language?

English language skills are not always, or routinely, sufficient

Language skills enable relationship and partnership building

Few possess both language and specific technical skills

While helpful, interpreters have limits

Knowing more than one language improves contextual understanding

LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY

Spoken languages worldwide

"What do they speak there?"

When the assumptions turn out wrong

Learning from firsthand experience

Revisiting and revising our assumptions

LANGUAGE AND CULTURE

The influence of culture on language

Culture and business

Culture and sports

Culture and language preservation

LANGUAGE AND SOCIAL CONTEXT

Take relationship specifics into account

Translation issues can lead to miscommunication

ADDITIONAL COMPLICATING FACTORS

Slang

Euphemisms

Conversational taboos

Accents

Humor

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES

Email

Text messages

CONCLUSION

CROSS-CULTURAL SCENARIOS

5. Negotiating across Cultures

WHAT IS NEGOTIATION?

The negotiation process

The nature of cross-cultural negotiation

WHERE TO NEGOTIATE

EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATORS

Avoid cultural cluelessness

Prepare carefully

Concentrate on long-term relationships, not short-term contracts

Focus on the interests behind the positions

Avoid overreliance on cultural generalizations

Be sensitive to timing

Consider silence as a source of help

Remain flexible

Learn to listen, not just speak

Act ethically and with integrity

THE USE OF INTERPRETERS

Prior to the negotiations

During the negotiations: Communicating with your interpreter

During the negotiations: Communicating with your counterpart

After the negotiations

CONCLUSION

CROSS-CULTURAL SCENARIOS

6. Understanding Organizational Culture

WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE?

Organization as a culture

Describing an organizational culture

Explaining "What’s going on?"

MEETINGS AS OPPORTUNITIES FOR COLLABORATION AND PROBLEM SOLVING

Meetings and national-culture differences

Meetings and organizational-culture differences

Lessons drawn from meetings

DECISION MAKING MODELS TO ADVANCE THE WORK

Decision making and cultural differences

Decision making and organizational-culture differences

Majority preferred at Small Car Group

100 percent consensus at Saturn

Leadership driven at Opel

Single voice of authority at Isuzu

Individual empowerment at GM Truck Group

Collaboration at GM do Brasil

The impact of decision-making differences

Lessons drawn from decision-making models

GOVERNING IN A CHINESE FAMILY BUSINESS

A tea restaurant in Hong Kong

Lessons about kinship and business

"SILOS" SYMBOLIZING THE LACK OF INTEGRATION

Perceptions by the acquired firms

Solutions for breaking down silos

CONCLUSION

CROSS-CULTURAL SCENARIOS

7. Partnering across Cultures

PARTNERSHIP BASICS

PARTNERING RELATIONSHIPS AND PROBLEM SOLVING

Partnering with on-site work colleagues

Lack of shared knowledge of "How we work around here"

Case 1: An inability to hear the issue and problem solve together

Case 2: A confidence turns into a betrayal

Building integration

Case 3: Making the decision to engage with other stakeholders

Case 4: Involving the entire team in applied research tasks

Case 5: Addressing issues of status and power among migrating healthcare workers

Lessons from the cases

The experience of global virtual partnerships

Distinctions between local and global partnerships

Global virtual partnerships

PARTNERSHIP LIFE CYCLE

Initiation stage

Start-up stage

Growth stage

Mature stage

Transition

PARTNERSHIP PROCESS OUTCOMES

PARTNERSHIP PRODUCT OUTCOMES

CONCLUSION

CROSS-CULTURAL SCENARIOS

8. Transforming Business Culture

DEFINITION OF CULTURAL TRANSFORMATION

CHANGE UNFOLDING

Developing and implementing a plan for change

Data gathering

Comparing the plan with the stated cultural ideals

Analyzing the reactions to change

Moving forward

CRITICAL ATTRIBUTES OF PLANNED CULTURAL TRANSFORMATION

Core idea

Concept of culture

Time-based process

BUSINESS APPROACH TO CHANGE

Core theme

Culture understood

Three-stage process models

Multi-stage process models

Summary

ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH TO CHANGE

Mechanisms of change

Invention

Cultural loss

Diffusion

Acculturation

Acculturation often underlies organizational-culture change

Where are all the anthropologists?

Similarities to an anthropological approach

Crises often force change: A manufacturing case study

Process and problem solving as core ideas

Summary

APPLYING THE PLANNED CULTURAL TRANSFORMATION PROCESS TO HEALTH CARE

Process

Assessment of process

CONCLUSION

CROSS-CULTURAL SCENARIOS

9. Exploring Consumers and Users

CONSUMER OR CUSTOMER? OH, AND WHAT’S A USER?

AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH TO UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS AND USERS

Methodology in consumer research

Methodology in design research

INTERFACE BETWEEN BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS AND CONSUMERS

The gold star question

Difficulty keeping pace with market complexity

Design district

Macy’s department store

At home with consumers

Product development challenges

Summary

UNDERSTANDING PRODUCTS HOLISTICALLY

Coffee with an anthropological twist

Fine chocolate without the guilt

COLLABORATIVE APPROACHES IN UNDERSTANDING USERS

A day in the life … and a sportswear opportunity revealed

A breath of fresh air … brought inside

BRAND MEANING AND ADVERTISING

Inspirational characters with compelling stories

Know thy consumers’ culture

WHEN VALUES ARE AT ODDS

The story unfolds

Intervention options

CONCLUSION

CROSS-CULTURAL SCENARIOS

10. Acting and Managing Globally

GLOBALLY ORIENTED FIRMS

RECRUITING AND HIRING

SUPPORTING DIVERSE WORK TEAMS

VALUING INTERNATIONAL ASSIGNMENTS

Business trip

"Frequent flyer" assignments

Commuter assignments

Rotational assignments

Short-term assignments

Long-term assignments

International transfers

BUILDING GLOBAL LEADERSHIP COMPETENCIES

Broad perspective

Appreciation of alternative viewpoints

Case 1: A reflection on a broad perspective and alternative viewpoints

Balancing contradictions

Emotional resilience

Case 2: A reflection on balancing contradictions and resilience

Case 3: A reflection on global leadership competencies

REIMAGINING GLOBAL STRATEGY

CONCLUSION

CROSS-CULTURAL SCENARIOS

Appendix A Cross-Cultural Scenario Discussions

References

Glossary

Photo and Illustration Credits

Index

 

 

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Author(s)

Biography

Gary P. Ferraro, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, received his BA from Hamilton College and his MA and PhD from Syracuse University. He was a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Swaziland (1979-80) and at Masaryk University in the Czech Republic (2003) and twice served as a visiting professor for the University of Pittsburgh's Semester at Sea Program, a floating university that travels around the world. He has conducted long-term research in Kenya and Swaziland and has traveled widely throughout many other parts of the world. He has served as a consultant/trainer for such organizations as the Peace Corps, IBM, Bank of America, Georgia Pacific, Duke Energy, and J.M. Huber, among others.

Elizabeth K. Briody has been involved in cultural-change efforts for over 30 years – first at General Motors Research and later through her own consulting practice, Cultural Keys. She has worked with clients are in manufacturing, health care, petrochemicals, consumer products, and service industries. She has written several books including Transforming Culture and Partnering for Organizational Performance. Briody is leading Anthropology’s Career Readiness Commission to improve student preparation for the job market and is Past President of the National Association for the Practice of Anthropology. Briody was the 2020 awardee of the Bronislaw Malinowski Award for lifetime achievement from the Society for Applied Anthropology. She earned her BA from Wheaton College, Norton, MA and her MA and PhD from The University of Texas at Austin.