1st Edition

The Dark Factory and the Future of Manufacturing A Guide to Operational Efficiency and Competitiveness

By Philip J. Gisi Copyright 2024
    276 Pages 25 B/W Illustrations
    by Productivity Press

    276 Pages 25 B/W Illustrations
    by Productivity Press

    276 Pages 25 B/W Illustrations
    by Productivity Press

    The world of manufacturing is undergoing significant changes driven by various factors and technological advancements. Automation and robotics technologies are revolutionizing manufacturing processes. Robotic systems are being increasingly used for repetitive and precise tasks, improving efficiency, quality, and safety. The Internet of Things (IoT) is enabling connectivity and data exchange between devices and systems. Manufacturing generates vast amounts of data and is leveraging this data through advanced analytics, providing valuable insights to optimize production processes, predict maintenance needs, and improve supply chain management.

    Additive Manufacturing has also gained significant traction in manufacturing. It enables the creation of complex parts and prototypes, customization, and rapid prototyping. Supply chains are becoming more interconnected and digitally integrated. Technologies such as blockchain enable transparent and secure transactions, traceability, and efficient inventory management. These trends and others are reshaping the manufacturing industry, promoting increased efficiency, agility, and sustainability. Manufacturers must be aware, understand, and embrace these changes to stay competitive and meet the evolving demands of customers in the modern era.

    This book enhances the awareness and understanding of these core technologies by explaining what they are and how they are being used in manufacturing. In addition, it provides practical suggestions on how to advance manufacturing in light of these changes. The book provides a view into the future and direction on how to navigate the journey to a more automated, smarter, and continuously learning factory. This book consolidates the major elements of the fourth industrial revolution and describes them in clear terms within the context of integrated manufacturing. It creates awareness and a fundamental understanding of the advanced technologies that are coming together to facilitate highly automated, smarter, agile, and sustainable operations.


    A Dark Factory:  The Future of Manufacturing



    About the Author



    Industry 4.0

    Figure I.1:  Industrial Revolutions

    The Digital Age

    Figure I.2: The Digital Age

    Book Contents

    Part I - Factory of the Future


    Chapter 1.1 - The Dark Factory

    What is a Dark Factory?

    Factory of the Future

    Figure 1.1.1: Factory of the Future

    Realizing a Future Factory

    Design for Manufacturing

    Industrial Automation

    Automation System Structure

    Field Devices


    Information Management

    Figure 1.1.2: Automation System Structure

    Human-machine interface (HMI)

    Industrial Automation - Implementation

    The Automated Factory

    Warehouse Automation

    Process Automation

    Robotic Process Automation (RPA)

    The Human Factor

    Roadmap / Strategy

    Key Points

    Chapter 1.2 - Industry 4.0: The Digital Age


    Figure 1.2.1: Smart Factory

    Internet of Things

    Data Analytics

    Digital Twin

    Block Chain

    Applications (Apps)

    Cloud Computing

    Wireless Connectivity

    Big Data

    Figure 1.2.2: The 3 V's of Big Data

    Mobile Devices

    Cognitive computing


    Key Points

    Chapter 1.3 - Digital Transformation


    Figure 1.3.1: Digital Transformation

    Physical versus Digital World

    Smart Factory

    Side Bar: What Makes a Smart Factory Smart?

    Remote Experts

    Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality

    Mixed Reality

    Extended Reality

    Artificial Intelligence

    Machine Learning

    Side Bar: Digital Maturity Model

    Key Points

    Chapter 1.4 - The New Manufacturing Mindset


    Figure 1.4.1: The New Manufacturing Mindset

    Manufacturing Agility


    Side Bar: Lean Manufacturing Principles

    Manufacturing Process Reliability

    Manufacturing Equipment Reliability


    Figure 1.4.2: Workstation Load/Unload Design Variants


    Figure 1.4.3: Example of Scalability



    Energy Efficiency


    Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing)

    Side Bar: Tips for 3D Printing.  

    Early Adoption of New technologies

    Key Points

    Part 2 - Strategic Product Line Design, Development & Installation.


    Chapter 2.1 Manufacturing Equipment


    Industrial Robots & Cobots

    Collaborative Robots (Cobots)

    Robot Deployment

    Table 2.1.1: Industrial Robot vs. Collaborative robot

    Automated Material-Handling Equipment

    Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs)

    Micro AGVs

    Smart Glasses

    Figure 2.1.2: Examples of Smart Glasses

    Sensors & Devices

    Automated Conveyors

    Key Points

    Chapter 2.2 - Line Design, Build & integration Strategy


    Production Concept

    Make or Buy Decision

    In-House Equipment Design and Build Activities

    Outsourcing Equipment Design and Build Activities

    Build Team

    Table 2.2.1: Build Competencies and Experience

    Test Equipment & Systems

    Equipment Build/Tool Shop

    Building for the Future

    Life Cycle Engineering

    Figure 2.2.1: Product Lifecycle Phases

    Manufacturing Simulations

    Key Points

    Chapter 2.3 - Equipment Fabrication


    In-House Equipment Fabrication

    Outsourcing Equipment Fabrication

    Figure 2.3.1: Equipment Build Activities Checklist

    Figure 2.3.2: Equipment Lifecycle Process

    Tool Shop Fabrication Capabilities

    Equipment Build Standards

    Figure 2.3.3: Equipment Design Considerations

    Ease of Equipment Maintenance

    Side Bar: Equipment Design Guidelines

    Key Points

    Chapter 2.4 - Production Line Assembly / Integration


    Side Bar: Production Line Assembly Overview

    Production Line Concepts

    Workstation Concepts

    Mixed Line Concept

    Decoupling Process Workflow (Buffers)

    Manufacturing Floorspace Optimization

    Equipment Mobility Optimization

    Production Line Material Supply

    Side Bar: Karakuri Solution

    AGV Ready Production Lines

    Manufacturing Operators

    Figure 2.4.1: Operator Positioning

    Key Points

    Chapter 2.5 - Product Line Validation


    Figure 2.5.1: Product Line Validation

    Machine Capability

    Product Validation Build

    Product Validation Testing

    Process Validation

    Run at Rate

    Product Line Acceptance

    Key Points

    Part 3 - Manufacturing in the Digital Age


    Chapter 3.1 - Process Execution


    Start of Production


    Standardization Drawbacks

    Data Collection and Analysis

    Data Collection

    Data Analytics

    Daily Shop Floor Management

    Figure 3.1.1: Daily Shop Floor Management

    Key Points

    Chapter 3.2 - Process Monitoring & Control


    Figure 3.2.1: Process Monitoring and Control

    Key Process Indicators

    Side Bar: Improving OEE

    Data Visualization and Reporting

    Deviation Management

    Figure 3.2.2: Deviation Management

    Key Points

    Chapter 3.3 - Line Maintenance & Equipment Repair

    Equipment Reliability

    Equipment Reliability Metrics

    Predictive Maintenance

    Figure 3.3.1: Predictive Maintenance Benefits

    Predictive Analytics

    Spare Parts Management

    3D Printing for Maintenance and Repair

    Key Points

    Chapter 3.4 - Continuous Improvement


    Figure 3.4.1: Continuous Improvement Methods & Sources of Ideas

    Lessons Learned

    Tips for Gathering Lessons Learned

    Best Practices

    Identifying Best Practices

    Change Management

    Effective Change Control Management

    Key Points

    Part 4 – Sustainable Manufacturing


    Chapter 4.1 - Resource Efficiency


    Figure 4.1.0: Resource Efficiency

    Water Conservation

    Tips for Reducing Water Consumption

    Energy  Conservation

    Tips for Energy Conservation

    Material  Conservation

    Alternative Materials

    Waste Reduction

    Recycling & Reuse

    Side Bar: Tips for Reducing Energy Consumption

    Key Points

    Chapter 4.2 - Pollution Prevention


    Figure 4.2.0: Pollution Prevention

    Greenhouse emissions

    Tips for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Air Pollutants

    Tips to Reduce Air Pollution

    Toxic Substances

    Tips to Minimize / Avoid Toxic Substances

    Pollution Control Technologies

    Air Pollution Controls

    Water pollution controls

    Waste Management

    Cleaner Production Methods

    Waste Management Practices

    Key Points

    Chapter 4.3 - Renewable Energy


    Figure 4.3.0: Renewable Energy Sources

    Solar Energy

    Wind Energy

    Hydropower Energy

    Geothermal Energy

    Side Bar: Global Geothermal Resource

    Manufacturing Benefits of Renewable Energy

    Key Point

    Chapter 4.4 - Design for Sustainability


    Figure 4.4.0: Design for Sustainability Tips; What to do & How to do it.  

    Environmental Footprint

    Eco Friendly Materials

    Durable, Repairable, and Recyclable Products

    Side Bar: What is a Circular Economy?

    Supply Chain Management

    Sustainable Sourcing Practices

    Reduced Transportation Impacts

    Ethical Labor Conditions

    Chapter 4.5 - Sustainable Manufacturing Culture

    A Culture of Sustainable Manufacturing

    Employee Awareness and Collaboration


    A.1 Acronyms


    Philip Gisi, PMP, SSMBB, has over 30 years of experience in the automotive, commercial, and aerospace industries. His areas of expertise include new product development, process technology, quality management, automotive electronics, and manufacturing. He has worked internationally in multicultural environments and is currently involved in manufacturing operations as a manufacturing operations manager at Vitesco Technologies. Phil has a Master of Science in Engineering, a Master’s Certificate in Project Management, Lean Management Certification from the University of Michigan, a Project Management Professional certification, and a Six Sigma Master Black Belt (SSMBB). Phil is the author of the book “Sustaining a Culture of Process Control and Continuous Improvement: The Roadmap for Efficiency and Operational Excellence” and continues to share his experiences in Project Management, Lean Concepts, and Six Sigma Process Improvement as a DePaul University instructor for more than 20 years.