In the last decade biodiversity loss and persistent poverty in developing countries have been recognised as major international problems that require urgent attention. However, the nature and scale of the links between these two problems, and between efforts to address them, has been the subject of much heated debate. Understanding the different elements of this debate is critical if we are to move towards constructive solutions. This Reader provides a guide to, and commentary on, the different strands of the current conservation-poverty debate through a selection of key readings from both the conservation and development literature including policy documents, journal articles and reports. The breadth of material will help readers, including both students and professionals, to locate current debates within their wider contexts. Among the areas of debate covered are: ' The lack of attention to biodiversity concerns in international development policy ' The social implications of protectionist conservation policy ' The roles and responsibilities of conservation NGOs towards local communities ' The links between climate change, biodiversity and poverty reduction, and in particular the implication of discussions around reduced emissions from deforestation (REDD) as a climate change mitigation strategy.
Table of Contents
1. Biodiversity Conservation and Poverty Reduction: An Introduction to the Debate Part I: Linking Biodiversity Conservation and Poverty Reduction - Where, How and Why? Editors' Introduction 2. Biodiversity Conservation and the Eradication of Poverty 3.Linking Conservation and Poverty Reduction: Landscapes, People and Power 4. Poverty, Development and Biodiversity Conservation: Shooting in the Dark? 5. Livelihoods, Forests and Conservation in Developing Countries: An Overview Part II: Conservation's Place in International Development Editors' Introduction 6. Integrating the Rio Conventions into Development Co-operation 7. Wildlife and Poverty Study 8. Striking a Balance: Ensuring Conservation's Place on the International Biodiversity Assistance Agenda 9. Report of the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group of Review of Implementation of the Convention 10. Contested Relationships between Biodiversity Conservation and Poverty Alleviation 11. Poverty and Conservation: The New Century's 'Peasant Question?' 12. Making Poverty Reduction Irreversible: Development Implications of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Part III: Conservation Policy and Protectionism Editors' Introduction 13. Protected Areas and Poverty - The Linkages and How to Address Them 14. Conservation Policy and Indigenous Peoples 15. The Role of Protected Areas in Conserving Biodiversity and Sustaining Local Livelihoods. 16. Eviction for Conservation: A Global Overview 17. Political Ecology and the Costs and Benefits of Protected Areas 18. A Property Rights Approach to Understanding Human Displacement from Protected Areas: The Case of Marine Protected Areas Part IV: Conservation NGOs and Poor People Editors' Introduction 19. Two Agendas on Amazon Development 20. International Conservation Organisations and the Fate of Local Tropical Forest Conservation Initiatives 21. A Challenge to Conservationists 22. Conservation, Development and Poverty Alleviation: Time for a Change in Attitudes 23. Conserving What and for Whom? Why Conservation Should Help Meet Basic Needs in the Tropics 24. Disentangling the Links between Conservation and Poverty Reduction in Practice Part V: New Developments: Ecosystem Services, Carbon and Climate Change Editors' Introduction 25. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Current State and Trends 26. Selling Out on Nature (and letters in response) 27. Payments for Environmental Services and the Poor: Concepts and Preliminary Evidence 28. Climate, Carbon, Conservation and Communities 29. Protecting the Future: Carbon, Forests, Protected Areas and Local Livelihoods 30. Seeing REDD? Forests, Climate Change Mitigation the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities Part VI: Moving Beyond the Debate - The Need for Conservation-poverty Partnerships Editors' Introduction 31. Partnerships for Conservation and Poverty Reduction 32. Common Ground between Anthropology and Conservation Biology 33. Thinking Like a Human: Social Science and the Two Cultures Problem
Dilys Roe is a Senior Researcher in the Natural Resources Group at the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London, UK. Joanna Elliott is Vice President for Program Design and Knowledge Management at the African Wildlife Foundation.
'We are at the threshold of an exciting but fraught new paradigm that compels conservation NGOs to shift from the notion that nature must be protected from people, to embracing the realization that natural systems must be conserved for people. This timely and important book is a must read for all who are ready to explore and examine the challenging new frontier that links conservation with human well-being.' – Steve McCormick, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, USA
'Biodiversity provides essential goods and services that people everywhere - above all poor people -- depend on. And it helps people cope with change and manage risk. Yet too often development erodes biodiversity, and too often conservation has been promoted without engaging poor people and without caring for their needs and rights. This book provides a valuable toolkit that will assist all those seeking to eradicate poverty, conserve biodiversity, and manage the trade-offs between these fundamental goals.' – David Cooper, Secretariat, Convention on Biological Diversity
'This book provides a stark reminder that one group's biosphere is another group's backyard. The rich biodiversity of our forests, coasts, and grasslands stands in contrast with the poverty of the people living there. The plants, people, and animals in these landscapes are inextricably connected. In this outstanding reader leading experts describe and debate those connections. No easy answers here, but who said life was simple. This is definitely worth the read.' – David Kaimowitz, Ford Foundation
'The collection of writings thoroughly explains the complex relationships between conservation and poverty reduction. It is possible to imagine motivated and careful readers to become well enough informed after finishing this book to work in the field or want to.' – Crosslands: Bulletin on Business, Law and the Environment
'The editors have drawn together a galaxy of authors who bring expertise on all aspects of biodiversity loss, conservation, poverty and its alleviation. In fact the book may be regarded as a manual on these two subjects with a wealth of references, experiences and perspectives.' – Professor John Hodges, AGRI
'The breadth of material will help readers, including students and professionals, to locate current debates within their wider contexts.' – Abstracts of Public Administration, Development, and Environment.
"The editors (Dilys Roe and Joanna Elliot) have carefully structured the Reader to cover a range of important issues and provide a clear and helpful commentary on the individual articles ... Many of the articles are thought provoking and likely to stimulate renewed discussion on the difficult questions that confront those interested in the topic" – Toby Hodgkin, Experimental Agriculture