The 'Ecosystem Approach' in International Environmental Law: Genealogy and Biopolitics, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

The 'Ecosystem Approach' in International Environmental Law

Genealogy and Biopolitics, 1st Edition

By Vito De Lucia

Routledge

295 pages

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Hardback: 9781138557260
pub: 2019-04-10
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Description

The ecosystem approach, broadly understood as a legal and governance strategy for integrated environmental and biodiversity management, has been adopted within a wide variety of international environmental legal regimes and provides a narrative, a policy approach and in some cases legally binding obligations for States to implement what has been called a ‘new paradigm’ of environmental management. In this last respect, the ecosystem approach is also often considered to offer an opportunity to move beyond the outdated anthropocentric framework underpinning much of international environmental law, thus helping re-think law in the Anthropocene.

Against this background, this book addresses the question of whether the ecosystem approach represents a paradigm shift in international environmental law and governance, or whether it is in conceptual and operative continuity with legal modernity. This central question is explored through a combined genealogical and biopolitical framework, which reveals how the ecosystem approach is the result of multiple contingencies and contestations, and of the interplay of divergent and sometimes irreconcilable ideological projects. The ecosystem approach, this books shows, does not have a univocal identity, and must be understood as both signalling the potential for a decisive shift in the philosophical orientation of law and the operationalisation of a biopolitical framework of control that is in continuity with, and even intensifies, the eco-destructive tendencies of legal modernity. It is, however, in revealing this disjunction that the book opens up the possibility of moving beyond the already tired assessment of environmental law through the binary of anthropocentrism and ecocentrism.

Table of Contents

Contents

Preface

Part I: Setting the Stage *

1. Setting the Stage *

1.1. Introduction: Time of Crisis. Ecology, Law and the Anthropocene. *

1.2. The Inadequacy of Environmental Law in the Anthropocene *

1.3. Environmental Law, Legal Modernity and Anthropocentrism *

1.4. The ‘Deep Contradiction’ of Environmental Law *

1.5. Ecology *

1.6. The ‘Ecosystem Approach’ in International Environmental Law: a Paradigm Shift? *

1.6.1. The ‘Ecosystem Approach’ in International Environmental Law: a Paradigm Shift? *

1.6.2. The Concept of Paradigm *

1.6.3. Two Narratives of Paradigm Shift *

1.7. Some Preliminary Clarifications *

1.7.1. The ‘Levels of Articulation’ of Environmental Law *

1.7.2. The ‘Ecosystem Approach’: a Note on Terminology *

1.8. Situating the Book: Theoretical and Methodological Approach *

1.9. The Structure of the Book *

Part II: A Genealogical Reading of the Ecosystem Approach *

2. Genealogy as a Legal Method *

2.1. Introduction *

2.2. Genealogy and Genealogies *

2.3. Genealogy as Problematization *

2.4. Legal Narratives. Towards a Genealogy of the ‘Ecosystem Approach’ *

3. Locating the ‘Ecosystem Approach’ *

3.1. Introduction *

3.2. Historical Antecedents *

3.3. Locating the ‘Ecosystem Approach’ *

3.4. Many Definitions *

3.4.1. Scientific and scholarly definitions *

3.4.2. Policy and legal-institutional definitions *

3.4.3. Conclusions *

3.5. Common Elements of the ‘Ecosystem Approach’ *

3.6. Conclusions *

4. The Multiplicity of the ‘Ecosystem Approach’: Histories, Concepts, Names *

4.1. Introduction *

4.2. Wide and Narrow Concept of the Ecosystem Approach *

4.2.1. Wide Concept *

4.2.2. Narrow Concept *

4.2.3. Concluding Remarks *

4.3. Legal-Institutional Clusters *

4.3.1. Introduction *

4.3.2. Biodiversity Cluster *

4.3.3. Ocean and Fisheries Cluster *

4.3.4. Freshwater Cluster *

4.3.5. Convergence and Institutional Connectivity *

4.4. Label and Terminologies *

4.5. Conclusions *

5. Underneath the ‘Ecosystem Approach’: Ecology as a Framework of Ambiguity *

5.1. Introduction *

5.2. The Complex Genealogies of Ecology *

5.3. Ecology between Science and Worldview *

5.4. Multiple Ecologies *

5.4.1. Between order and Chaos *

5.4.2. Between Competition (Individualism) and Cooperation (Collectivism) *

5.5. Biology, Ecology and the Ethics of Conservation *

5.6. The Concept of Ecosystem *

5.6.1. A Brief Genealogy of the Concept of Ecosystem *

5.7. Conclusions *

6. The ‘Ecosystem Approach’ between Competing Narratives *

6.1. Introduction *

6.2. Conflicting values, Competing Narratives *

6.3. Ecocentric Articulations of the Ecosystem Approach *

6.4. Anthropocentric Articulations of the Ecosystem Approach *

6.4.1. Introduction *

6.4.2. The ‘ecosystem approach’ and the Sustainable Development Narrative *

6.4.3. The ‘ecosystem approach’ as a tool *

6.4.4. Articulating the ‘ecosystem approach’ anthropocentrically *

6.5. Conclusions *

Part III: A Biopolitical Reading of the ‘Ecosystem Approach’ *

7. Beyond Anthropocentrism and Ecocentrism *

7.1. Introduction *

7.2. Problematizing Anthropocentrism *

7.2.1. Introduction *

7.2.2. Multiple Anthropocentrism(s) *

7.2.3. Deconstructing the Anthropos *

7.3. Problematizing Ecocentrism *

7.3.1. Introduction *

7.3.2. External Critiques *

7.3.3. Internal Critiques *

7.4. Conclusions *

8. A Biopolitical Framework *

8.1. Introduction *

8.2. Biopower and Biopolitics *

8.3.1. Bipolar Biopower: Discipline and Regulatory Controls *

8.3.2. Biopolitics *

8.2.3. Continuity and Discontinuity between Forms of Power *

8.3. Biopolitics beyond Foucault *

8.3.1. Introduction *

8.3.2. Biopolitics and Italian Theory *

8.3.3. Agamben: Sovereignty, Bare Life and Thanatopolitics *

8.3.4. Hardt and Negri: Biopolitical Production and Biopotenza *

8.3.5. Esposito: Biopolitics and the Immunitary Paradigm of Modernity *

8.4. Expanding Biopolitics to Nature *

8.5. Ecopolitics and Law: Sovereign Encoding and Technical Norm *

8.6. Conclusions *

9. A Biopolitical Critique of the ‘Ecosystem Approach’: Biodiversity Conservation *

9.1. Introduction *

9.2. The Convention on Biological Diversity: Some Preliminary Clarifications *

9.2.1. Introduction *

9.2.2. The Objectives of the Convention *

9.2.3. Framing Biological Diversity *

9.2.4. The Concept of Conservation *

9.2.5. The Concept of Ecosystem in the CBD *

9.3. The ‘Ecosystem Approach’ as a New Strategy for Biodiversity Conservation *

9.3.1. Introduction *

9.3.2. The Malawi Principles *

9.3.3. Articulating the Ecosystem Approach *

9.4. The Competing Narratives Traversing the ‘Ecosystem Approach’ *

9.4.1. Introduction *

9.4.2. Ecological Normativity *

9.4.3. Governance *

9.4.4. Knowledge Pluralism *

9.4.5. Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital *

9.5. The Narrative of Ecosystem Services: a Biopolitical Resolution? *

9.5.1. Introduction *

9.5.2. Ecosystem Services and the Ecosystem Approach *

9.6. The Institutional Dimension *

9.6.1. Conference of the Parties *

9.6.2. Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice *

9.6.3. Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services *

9.6.4. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity *

9.6.5. Interaction between TEEB and IPBES *

9.7. Conclusions *

10. Inside and against Biopolitics: Towards a Productive Reading of the ‘Ecosystem Approach’? *

10.1. Introduction *

10.2. Genealogy, Biopolitics and the Immanence of Critique *

10.3. The Productive Ambiguities of the Ecosystem Approach *

10.3.1. Introduction *

10.3.2. Teasing out Some Productive Ambiguities of the ‘Ecosystem Approach’ *

10.4. Thinking Law beyond Law, and Biopolitics beyond Biopolitics *

10.5. ‘Epistemic Location’ and Transversal Ecological Thinking *

10.6. Law in the Middle of the World *

10.7. Towards a New Horizon of Sense? *

10.8. Conclusions *

11. Conclusions *

11.1. Conclusions *

Index

 

 

About the Author

Vito De Lucia is a Post Doctoral Fellow at the K. G. Jebsen Center for the Law of the Sea, Faculty of Law, UiT Arctic University of Norway

About the Series

Law, Justice and Ecology

In an age of climate change, scarcity of resources, and the deployment of new technologies that put into question the very idea of the 'natural', this book series offers a cross-disciplinary, novel engagement with the connections between law and ecology. The fundamental challenge taken up by the series concerns the pressing need to interrogate and to re-imagine prevailing conceptions of legal responsibility, legal community and legal subjectivity, by embracing the wider recognition that human existence is materially embedded in living systems and shared with multiple networks of non-humans.

Encouraging cross-disciplinary engagement and reflection upon relevant empirical, policy and theoretical issues, the series pursues a thoroughgoing, radical and timely exploration of the multiple relationships between law, justice and ecology.

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
LAW034000
LAW / Environmental
LAW051000
LAW / International
LAW060000
LAW / Legal History
NAT010000
NATURE / Ecology