1st Edition

The Energy Trilemma in the Baltic Sea Region Security, Equity and the Environment

Edited By Michael Kalis Copyright 2025
    312 Pages 17 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge


    The Energy Trilemma in the Baltic Sea Region provides insight into the energy trilemma in the Baltic Sea Region.


    Energy Trilemma in the Baltic Sea Region has undergone significant transformation in the last number of years. Energy actors in the region are struggling to reconcile new questions of energy security following the Covid-19 pandemic and invasion of Ukraine with net-zero objectives and a cost-of-living crisis. Balancing these concerns is essential to resolving the ‘energy trilemma’: the dilemma that emerges for policy makers and regulators seeking to balance energy security, equity, and environmental concerns in pursuit of a wholly sustainable energy system. This volume draws together a range of perspectives from scholars of the Baltic Sea Region seeking to understand the manifestations and impact of these systemic regional changes. In considering previously underexamined studies on the energy trilemma and in providing new perspectives by framing the trilemma in times of crisis, this book provides new conceptual and empirical insight into a rapidly changing energy region at the heart of both European energy policy and the current energy crisis.


    This volume will be of great interest to students and scholars of energy politics, energy law and policy, energy transitions and Baltic studies more broadly.

    Chapter 1: Energy Trilemma in the Baltic Sea Region – Security, Equity, and the Environment – Introduction

    Michael Kalis, Martina Kolanoski, Marie Becker, and Till Reinholz


    Section 1: Approaching the Energy Trilemma

    Chapter 2: Energy Trilemma – Concept and Context in the Baltic Sea Region

    Michael Kalis

    Chapter 3: Normative Guidance in the Energy Trilemma: The role of the law in “solving” the trilemma

    Michael Kalis and Michael Rodi


    Section 2: Energy Security

    Chapter 4: Energy trilemma in times of crisis

    The changing sociotechnical imaginaries of nuclear energy in Finland and Poland

    Izabela Surwillo and Matti Kojo

    Chapter 5: Energy innovation in the Baltic Sea region: trade-offs between sustainability, security, and sovereignty

    Thomas Sattich, Stella Huang, Mateusz Stopa

    Section 3: Energy equity and justice

    Chapter 6: Market rationality and energy justice

    Hugo Faber and Simon Birnbaum

    Chapter 7: The Relationship Between Energy Equity and Green Colonialism: The Arctic Paradox?

    Solveig Marie Wang, Paul Kirschstein, Mary Keogh

    Chapter 8: United against LNG across the Atlantic:

    Energy Humanities and Environmental Justice in the Baltic Energy Trilemma

    Bethany Wiggin

    Chapter 9: Exploring the Energy Trilemma in the narratives of Norway’s energy transition

    Karina Standal, Merethe Dotterud Leiren and Nora Svarstad Ytreberg


    Section 4: Environmental Sustainability

    Chapter 10: Green, affordable, or secure energy? Energy trilemma in the Latvian strategic narrative after Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in 2022

    Vineta Kleinberga

    Chapter 11: Clean, Green, Sustainable? Hydrogen and the energy trilemma in the Baltic Sea Region

    Michael Kalis

    Beyond Sustainability –

    Issues in Contemporary Estonian Environmentalism

    Oliver Aas



    Unravelling the Gordian knot? The Energy Trilemma in the Baltic Sea Region in an age of transition – An Epilogue

    Michael Kalis





    Michael Kalis is senior researcher at the Energy Transition Cluster at The Interdisciplinary Centre for Baltic Sea Region Research, University of Greifswald. He is also head of department of the research academy at IKEM - Institute for Climate Protection, Energy and Mobility and deputy scientific director.