1st Edition

The Environment Science, Issues, and Solutions

    648 Pages 320 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Strongly grounded in the scientific method and evidence, The Environment: Science, Issues, and Solutions presents an organized, accessible, building block approach that introduces the principles of ecology. This book examines the effects of technology use and the unprecedented economic growth and development that has tipped the natural balance of the environment, resulting in serious local, regional, and global environmental problems. This comprehensive text explores the need for interrelated long-term solutions for the prevention and mitigation of environmental problems.

    Ecosystem Structure and Function
    The Environment and the Nature of Scientific Enquiry
    Meaning and Significance of Environment
    The Pale Blue Dot
    Stories in the News
    Advent of Global Environmental Awakening
    Focus on Environmental Problems Sharpens
    Advances in Environmental Research and Regulation
    The Scientific Method
    Types of Scientific Studies
    The Two Cultures and the Environment
    The Urge to Live, Live Well, and Live Better

    Biosphere and the Science of Ecology
    The Biosphere
    The Lithosphere
    The Hydrosphere
    The Science of Ecology
    The Ecosystem Concept

    Atmosphere, Climate, and Organisms
    Climate and Weather
    Global Climate and General Circulation
    Solar Radiation and Light
    Heat and Air Temperature
    Precipitation, Humidity, and Wind
    Influence of Topography
    Climate, Weather, and Humans

    The Soil Environment
    Soil Defined
    Origin of Soils
    Soil Physical Characteristics
    Soil Chemical Relations
    Soil Biota

    The Aquatic Environment
    Characteristics of Water
    Hydrological Cycle
    Streams and Rivers
    Freshwater Lakes
    Saline Lakes
    Oceans, Seas, and Estuaries

    Biogeochemical Cycling of Materials
    Biogeochemical Cycles
    Drivers of Biogeochemical Cycles
    Hydrological or Water Cycle
    Gaseous Cycles
    Mineral or Sedimentary Cycles
    Interactions of Biogeochemical Cycles

    Energy Flows and Ecosystem Productivity
    Solar Energy—the Driving Variable
    Laws of Thermodynamics
    Terrestrial Primary Productivity
    Photosynthetic Pathways
    Ecological Controls on Primary Productivity
    Aquatic Primary Productivity
    Secondary Productivity
    Bioaccumulation through Food Webs

    Population Ecology
    Populations—the Central Units in Ecology and Evolution
    Population Growth
    Regulation of Population Size
    Spatial Patterns of Population Abundance
    Life Histories of Organisms
    Interspecific Interactions and Population Dynamics

    Community Ecology and Succession
    Ecological Communities
    Community Structure
    Ecological Succession
    Changes in Succession
    Controls on Succession
    Mechanisms of Succession
    Rangeland Succession
    Concept of Climax, Old-Growth, or Mature Communities

    Biomes—the Major Ecosystems of the World
    Tundra and Alpine
    Temperate Deciduous Forest
    Temperate Coniferous Forest
    Dry-Mesic Forest
    Temperate Rain Forest
    Tropical Rain Forest
    Tropical Savannas

    Contemporary Environmental Issues
    Human Population Growth
    Forces Driving Human Population Growth
    Rapid Growth in Numbers Means Greater Consumption
    Biophysical Controls over Population Growth
    Increasing Consumption and Decreasing Natural Resources
    Uneven Access to Natural Capital Threatens Global Security
    Environmental Refugees
    Overall Assessment of Increasing Human Numbers

    Land Use—Agriculture
    Agriculture in Retrospect
    Traditional and Industrialized Agriculture
    Food Bounty of the United States
    Energy Input into Agriculture
    The Green Revolution
    Land Use Conflicts
    Growing Monocultures
    Sustaining Energy Subsidies
    Biocides: Use, Persistence, and Health Effects
    Disruption of Biogeochemical Cycles
    Soil Erosion
    Animal Agriculture
    Challenges of Food Security

    Land Use—Forest Resources
    Forest Ecosystems in Perspective
    Global and National Extent of Forests
    Types and Functions of Forests
    Forest Products
    Deforestation and Its Underlying Causes
    Impacts on Hydrological Cycle
    Impacts on Gaseous and Sedimentary Cycles
    Habitat Fragmentation and Loss of Biodiversity
    Forest Death: Mortality, Insects, and Pathogens
    Forest Fires
    Challenges for Forest Management

    Land Use—Mining for Mineral and Coal Resources
    Types of Minerals
    Mineral Exploration
    Extraction from the Ground
    Mineral Processing
    Consumption Patterns and Environmental Impacts
    Waste Production and Disposal—Eastern United States and Canada
    Waste Production and Disposal—Western United States and Canada
    Industrial Ecology
    Legislative Measures

    Land Use—Urbanization and Transportation
    Forces Driving Urbanization
    Trends of Urbanization
    Growing Global Urban Population
    Land Use
    Urban Transportation and Impacts
    Urban–Industrial Wastes and Biogeochemical Cycles
    Urban Climate and Air Pollutants
    Urban Vegetation

    Water Resources—Quantity and Quality
    The Essential Nature of Water
    Use and Depletion of Surface and Ground Water
    Impounding Water
    Competition for Water
    Water Quality—Freshwater and Marine Ecosystems
    Oil Spills in Marine Systems
    Decline of Fisheries
    Legislation on Water Issues

    Fuel Energy
    Energy as Fuel
    Energy from Biomass
    Energy from Nonrenewable Resources
    Fossil Fuel Energy—Retrospect and Prospect
    Energy from Renewable Resources
    Current Global and National Energy Profile
    Energy Policy

    Air Quality and Stratospheric Ozone
    Sources of Air Pollutants
    Types of Air Pollutants
    Air Pollutant Transformations
    Modes of Air Pollutant Action
    Criteria Air Pollutants
    Nature of Atmospheric Deposition
    Factors Affecting Atmospheric Deposition
    Acidification of Water and Soils
    Acidification of Lakes and Streams
    Acidification of Forests
    Acidification Impacts on Agriculture
    Atmospheric Pollution and Human Health
    Atmospheric Deposition Impacts on Monuments
    The Ozone "Hole" and the Montreal Protocol

    The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change
    Greenhouse Gases and the Greenhouse Effect
    Geological History and Temperature
    Carbon Dioxide and Temperature
    Evidence of Carbon Dioxide Increase
    Sources and Sinks of Carbon
    Other Greenhouse Gases
    Evidence of Global Warming
    General Circulation Models
    Climate–Weather Uncertainties
    Response of Biota to Climate Change
    Climate Change and Human Health
    Recent National and International Responses

    Biological Diversity Loss and the March of Invasive Species
    Biological Diversity
    Values of Safeguarding Biological Diversity
    Biological Invasions
    Major Factors That Facilitate Invasions
    Temporal Attributes of Invasive Species
    Effects of Invasions on Ecosystem Structure and Function
    How Do Species Invade So Successfully?
    Invasions as Agents of Environmental Change
    Economic Losses from Invasions
    Getting Rid of Invasive Species
    Policies to Lessen Biodiversity Loss

    Seeking Solutions
    Environmental Policy and Law
    Policy-Making and Science
    Process of Making Policy
    Environmental Policy
    Environmental Policy and Ecology
    Environment and Energy: an Example
    Public versus Private Rights
    Environmental Policy and Law: the United States as an Example
    Legislative Goals versus Implementation Actions
    International Issues, Laws, and Treaties
    Environmental Policy Instruments
    Environmental Justice
    The Precautionary Principle
    Miles Gained, Miles Remaining

    Economic Systems, Growth, and Development
    Economics and Its Beginning
    Economic Practice and Its Major Principles
    The Externalities
    Global Poverty and Economic Sector Subsidies
    Environmental and Resource Economics
    Economics and Ecology
    Steady-State Economics
    Ecological Economics
    Growth and Development
    Market Economics: GDP and GNP
    Genuine Progress Indicator
    Human Development Index
    The Concept of Ecological Footprint

    Environmental Management
    Principles of Adaptive Ecosystem Management
    Environmental Information Systems
    Ecosystem Analyses
    Ecosystem Classification Systems
    Ecosystem Integrity and Stability
    Assessment of Environmental Health and Risks
    Management of Damaged versus Intact Ecosystems
    Design and Management of Natural Protection Areas
    Sustainable Watershed Management
    Best Land Management Practices

    Restoration of Disturbed Ecosystems
    Restoring Degraded Systems
    Restoration, Rehabilitation, or…
    Initiating the Process of Restoration
    The Restoration Protocol
    Grassland Restoration on Mined Lands
    Forest Restoration on Mined Lands
    Restoration of Wetlands
    Wetland Conservation Efforts
    Brownfields, Bioremediation, and Phytoremediation
    Evaluating Success
    Global Imperative of Restoration Economy

    Conservation of Biological Diversity and Natural Resources
    Principles for Conservation
    Biological Diversity and Ecosystem Services
    Extinction Is a Natural Process
    The Control of Invasive Species
    Conservation Biology
    Strategies for Conservation
    Conservation of Natural Resources
    Case Study: Recycling and Natural Resources

    Sustainable Development
    Approaches to Achieving Sustainability
    The Concept of Sustainable Development
    Ecological Controls on Sustainable Development
    Revolutionary Thinking in Economics Is Needed
    Cases in Point: Food Production and Renewable Energy
    The Eco-City Concept: Green Cities
    Sustainability Inter Alia
    Environmental Awareness Is Here to Stay
    The Road Ahead


    Mohan K. Wali, Fatih Evrendilek, M. Siobhan Fennessy

    "… good guide to comprehend processes, problems and solutions related to the environment. Every chapter is accompanied by figures, illustrations, maps and exercises to provide a better understanding of this important topic."
    —D. A. Pinilla, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain