This collection of essays emphasizes society’s increasingly responsible engagement with ethical challenges in emerging medical technology. Expansion of technological capacity and attention to patient safety have long been integral to improving healthcare delivery but only relatively recently have concepts like respect, distributive justice, privacy, and autonomy gained some power to shape the development, use, and refinement of medical tools and techniques. Medical ethics goes beyond making better medicine to thinking about how to make the field of medicine better. These essays showcase several ways in which modern ethical thinking is improving safety, efficacy and efficiency of medical technology, increasing access to medical care, and empowering patients to choose care that comports with their desires and beliefs. Included are complimentary ethical approaches as well as compelling counter-arguments. Together, the articles demonstrate how improving the quality of medical technology relies on every stakeholder -- not just medical researchers and scientists -- to assess each given technology’s strengths and pitfalls. This collection also portends one of the next major issues in the ethics of medical technology: developing the requisite moral framework to accompany shifts toward patient-centred personalized healthcare.
Part I: Ethics and Oversight
1. F. Lucivero & T. Swierstra & M. Boenink, Assessing Expectations: Towards a Toolbox for an Ethics of Emerging Technologies Nanoethics, 5, 129-141 (2011)
2. B. Hofmann, Why Ethics should be part of Health Technology Assessment, International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, 24:4, 423-429 (2008)
3. D.B. Kramer, Shuai Xu, and Aaron S. Kesselheim, Regulation of Medical Devices in the United States and European Union, NEJM, 366:9, 848-855 (2012)
4. G. D. Curfman, and R. F. Redberg, Medical Devices — Balancing Regulation and Innovation, NEJM, 365:11, 975-977 (2011)
5. Emily C. Feinstein, Arthur Caplan, Jonathan D. Moreno and Ilene Albala-Reicher, The Ethics of off-LabelUse of FDA-Approved Products, chapter in Off-Label Communications: A Guide to Sales and Marketing Compliance (4th Edition), published by Food and Drug Law Institute, 2014 pp. 49-77
Part II: Preventive
6. M.J. Young, D.A. Sisti, H Rimon-Greenspan, J.L. Schwartz & A.L. Caplan, Immune to addiction: the ethical dimensions of vaccines against substance abuse, Nature Immunology 13:6, 521-524 (2012).
7. A.L. Bredenoord, G. Pennings and G. de Wert, Ooplasmic and nuclear transfer to prevent mitochondrial DNA disorders: conceptual and normative issues, Human Reproduction Update, 14:6, 669–678, (2008).
8. R Sparrow, L Sparrow, In the hands of machines? The future of aged care, Minds and Machines, 16, 141-161 (2006).
9. S. Bull, L.T. Breslin, E.E. Wright, S.R. Black, D Levine, J.S. Santelli, Case Study: An Ethics Case Study of HIV Prevention Research on Facebook: The Just/Us Study, Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 36:10, 1082-1092 (November/December 2011)
10. J.Timmermans & Y. Zhao & J. v.d. Hoven, Ethics and Nanopharmacy: Value Sensitive Design of New Drugs, Nanoethics, 5, 269–283 (2011).
Part III: Diagnostic
11. B.J. Healey, D. Kopen, J Smith, Physicians, Defensive Medicine, and Ethics, Academy of Health Care Management Journal, 7:1, 59-78 (2011).
12. Juengst, Eric T., Michael A. Flatt, and Richard A. Settersten. Personalized genomic medicine and the rhetoric of empowerment., Hastings Center Report 42, no. 5 (2012): 34-40.
13. Tabor, Holly K., Jeffrey C. Murray, Hilary S. Gammill, Jacob O. Kitzman, Matthew W. Snyder, Mario Ventura, Alexandra P. Lewis et al. Non-invasive fetal genome sequencing: opportunities and challenges, American journal of medical genetics. Part A 158, no. 10 (2012): 2382.
14. Jox, Ralf J., James L. Bernat, Steven Laureys, and Eric Racine. "Disorders of consciousness: responding to requests for novel diagnostic and therapeutic interventions." The Lancet Neurology 11, no. 8 (2012): 732-738.
Part IV: Treatment Monitoring and Medical Information
15. R. Steinbrook, Personally Controlled Online Health Data - The Next Big Thing in Medical Care?, NEJM 358:16, 1653-1656 (2008).
16. Ossorio, Pilar N. "The Ethics of Translating High‐Throughput Science into Clinical Practice." Hastings Center Report 44, no. 5 (2014): 8-9.
17. E. Palm, Who Cares? Moral Obligations in Formal and Informal Care Provision in the Light of ICT-Based Home Care, Health Care Analysis 21, 171–188 (2013).
18. E.H. W. Kluge, Ethical and legal challenges for health telematics in a global world: Telehealth and the technological imperative, International Journal of Medical Informatics, 80, e1-e5 (2011).
19. Hoffman, Sharona, and Andy Podgurski. "Big bad data: law, public health, and biomedical databases." The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 41, no. s1 (2013): 56-60.
Part V: Therapeutic
20. M. Miyasaka, S.Sasaki, M. Tanaka, J. Kikunaga, Use of Brain-Machine Interfaces as Prosthetic Devices: An Ethical Analysis, Journal of Philosophy and Ethics in Health Care and Medicine, 6, 29-38 (2012).
21. R. Grant, C. Halpern, G. Baltuch, J. O’reardon, A. Caplan, Ethical considerations in deep brain stimulation for psychiatric illness, Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 21, 1-5 (2014).
22. J. Dixon, J. Logue, P. Komesaroff, Promises and Ethical Pitfalls of Surgical Innovation: the Case of Bariatric Surgery, Obesity Surgery, 23, 1698-1702, (2013).
23. P. McCormack, S. Woods, A. Aartsma-Rus, L. Hagger, A. Herczegfalvi, E. Heslop, J. Irwin, J. Kirschner, P. Moeschen, F. Muntoni, M. Ouillade, J. Rahbek, C. Rehmann-Sutter, F. Rouault, T. Sejersen, E. Vroom, V. Straub, K. Bushby, A. Ferlini, Guidance in Social and Ethical Issues Related to Clinical, Diagnostic Care and Novel Therapies for Hereditary Neuromuscular Rare Diseases: "Translating" the Translational , PLOS Currents Muscular Dystrophy, Edition 1 (2013). doi: 10.1371/currents.md.f90b49429fa814bd26c5b22b13d773ec.
24. Jeremy Sugarman, Questions Concerning the Clinical Translation of Cell-Based Interventions under an Innovation Pathway, Journal of Law Medicine and Ethics, 40:4, 945-950 (Winter 2012).
25. Fa-Ming Chen, Yi-Min Zhao, Yan Jin, Songtao Shi, Prospects for Translational Regenerative Medicine, Biotechnology Advances, 30, 658-672 (2012).
26. K. Reid, S. Greene, Diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular disorders: an ethical analysis of current practices, Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 40, 546-561 (2013).
Part VI: Rescue and End-of-Life
27. S. Badylak, D. Weiss, A. Caplan, P. Macchiarini, Engineered Whole Organs and Complex Tissues, The Lancet, 379, 1-10 (2012).
28. D. Abrams, K. Prager, C. Blinderman, K. Burkart, D. Brodie, Ethical Dilemmas Encountered With the Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Adults, CHEST 145:4, 876-882 (2014).
29. M Gysels, N Evans, A Menaca, E Andrew, F Toscani, et al, Culture and End of Life Care: A Scoping Exercise in Seven European Countries, PLoS ONE, 7:4, 1-16 (2012).
30. D. Sulmasy. Within You / Without You: Biotechnology, Ontology, and Ethics, Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23:Suppl 1, 69-72 (2007).
31. J. Guerra González, Xenotransplantation, Humana Press, 281-305 (2012).
32. K. Swetz, J. Keith Mansel, Ethical Issues and Palliative Care in the Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit, Cardiology Clinics 31, 657-668 (2013).
Part VII: Normalization and Enhancement
33. Camporesi, Silvia, and Michael J. McNamee. "Gene Transfer for Pain: A tool to cope with the intractable, or an unethical endurance enhancing technology?."Life Sciences Society and Policy 8, no. 1 (2012): 20.
34. A. Frank, Emily’s Scars: Surgical Shapings, Technoluxe, and Bioethics in Erik Parens, Ed., Surgically Shaping Children (Johns Hopkins UP) p. 68-89
35. Tom Humphries, Poorna Kushalnagar, Gaurav Mathur, Donna Jo Napoli, Carol Padden, Christian Rathmann, and Scott Smith, "Cochlear Implants and the Right to Language: Ethical Considerations, the Ideal Situation, and Practical Measures Toward Reaching the Ideal," Cochlear Implant Research Updates, Dr. Cila Umat (Ed.) p.193-212 (2012), ISBN: 978-953-51-0582-4.
36. Catsanos, Ruby, Wendy Rogers, and Mianna Lotz. "The ethics of uterus transplantation." Bioethics 27, no. 2 (2013): 65-73.
37. F. Coeytaux, M. Darnovsky, S.B. Fogel, Assisted reproduction and choice in the biotech age: recommendations for a way forward, Contraception, 83, 1-4 (2011).
38. Gems, David. "Tragedy and delight: the ethics of decelerated ageing."Philosophical transactions of the royal society B: Biological Sciences 366, no. 1561 (2011): 108-112.
39. Fröding, Barbro Elisabeth Esmeralda. "Cognitive enhancement, virtue ethics and the good life." Neuroethics 4, no. 3 (2011): 223-234.