The Eugenics Movement
An International Perspective
This six-volume facsimile collection brings together many of the early writings of the movement, charting the rise of the Eugenics movement, including ‘pre-eugenics’ writings from the late nineteenth century and also papers on later recurrences of sterilisation issues from the 1980s and 1990s. The collection focuses mainly on the British and American Eugenics movement but also includes some papers from France, Russia and Germany, with new translations alongside original texts, demonstrating the international scope of the movement in the early twentieth century.
A new introduction to each section places the articles in context both historically and intellectually. This collection is a fascinating insight into Eugenics and its development and will be of interest to students and researchers in the fields of History of Ideas and Social and Cultural History.
Table of Contents
The Eugenics Movement: An International Perspective
Edited by Pauline H. Mazumdar
PART I. THE XIXth CENTURY: DEGENERATION
1 Max Nordau, Entartung (1892) anonymous translation as Degeneration (New York, NY: Fertig, 1968) vii-ix; Book I, “Fin –de-siècle,” 1-44.
2 Emile Zola, Germinal (1885) translated by Havelock Ellis (1894) (London: Dent / Everyman 1933) Part 7, 349-422.
3 Cesare Lombroso, Crime: its Causes and Remedies (1906) translated by H. P. Horton, (Montclair, NJ: Patterson-Smith, 1968) xxxiii – xxxvi; 365–384.
4 Charles Wicksteed Armstrong, “Is degeneration a photocopyt?” from his The Survival of the Unfittest (London: Daniel, 1927) 17-32.
PART II. THE XIXth CENTURY : SOCIAL ACTIVISM & SOCIAL CONTROL
5 [Margaret] Fison, Handbook of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science (London: Longman, 1859) 9-34; 68-78; 163-218.
6 Helen Dendy, “The industrial residuum,” Economic Journal (1863) 3:600-616, reprinted in Bernard Bosanquet, ed., Aspects of the Social Problem by Various Authors (London: Macmillan, 1895) 82-102.
7 Great Britain. Inter-Departmental Committee on Physical Deterioration. Report of the Inter-Departmental Committee on Physical Deterioration. Vol. 1 Report and Appendix (London: HMSO, 1904) [FitzRoy Report]. V. Alleged tendency of superior stocks in all classes towards a diminished rate of reproduction, 38-39; VI. Food; VII. 39-44; VIII. Conditions attending life of the juvenile population, 44-71; Appendix 1. 95-97;
PART III. THE ANIMAL MODEL: PEDIGREES AND BREEDERS
The geneticists explain Mendelism to the breeders:
8 W. E. Castle, “Some biological principles of animal breeding,” American Breeders Magazine (1912) 3:270-282.
9 Sewall Wright, “Mendelian analysis of the pure breeds of livestock. I. The measurement of inbreeding and relationship,” J. Heredity (1923) 14:339-348.
10 Sewall Wright, “Mendelian analysis of the pure breeds of livestock. II The Duchess family of Shorthorns as bred by Thomas Bates,” J. Heredity (1923) 14:405-422.
11 Harry H. Laughlin, Racing Capacity in the Thoroughbred Horse: Part I. The measure of racing capacity. Part II. The inheritance of racing capacity. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Supplementary Publications No. 7 (Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution, 1934).
Reprinted from The Scientific Monthly, March and April, 1934, Vol. XXXVIII, pages Pp 210-222 and 310-321
Animal breeding and racism:
12 W.E. Castle, “Biological and social consequences of race-crossing,” J. Heredity (1924) 15:363-369.
PART IV: PAUPERISM, FEEBLEMINDEDNESS AND DIFFERENTIAL FERTILITY:
THE EUGENICS EDUCATION SOCIETY IN BRITAIN
13 Francis Galton, “Hereditary talent and character,” Macmillan’s Magazine (1865) 12:318-327.
14 Charles Darwin, “Natural selection as affecting civilized nations,” from his The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (London: Murray, 2nd ed., rev., 1909) 944-947.
15 David Heron, On the Relation of Fertility in Man to Social Status, and on the Changes in this Relation that have Taken Place in the Last Fifty Years. From the Department of Applied Mathematics, University College, University of London; in the Series, “Draper’s Company Research Memoirs: Studies in National Deterioration.” (London: Dulau, 1906).
16 [Mrs Walter Slater] The Problem of the Feebleminded: an Abstract of the Report of the Royal Commission on the Care and Control of the Feebleminded with an introduction by the Rt. Hon. Sir Edward Fry, GCB and contributions from Sir Francis Galton, FRS, the Rev. W.R. Inge, DD, Professor Pigou and Miss Mary Dendy. (London: King, 1909) 97-101 (A. C. Pigou); 105-113 (Mary Dendy).
17 Eric J. Lidbetter, “Some examples of Poor Law eugenics,” Eugen. Rev. (1910-11) 2:204-228.
18 Ethel M. Elderton, Amy Barrington, Gertrude Jones, Edith M. M. de G. Lamotte, H. J. Laski and Karl Pearson, On the Correlation of Fertility with Social Value: a Cooperative Study. From the University of London, Francis Galton for National Eugenics, Eugenics Laboratory Memoirs XVIII (London: Dulau, 1913), pp 1-72
19 Karl Pearson, Social Problems: their Treatment, Past, Present and Future: [A lecture delivered at the Galton Laboratory for National Eugenics, March 19th 1912], in the Series, Questions of the Day and of the Fray, No. V, pp 2-40 (London: Dulau, 1912).
PART V. EUGENICS IN THE UNITES STATES: IMMIGRATION, STERILISATION AND THE LAW
20 Charles B. Davenport, Heredity in Relation to Eugenics (New York, NY: Holt, 1911) 6-25; 204-224.
21 Harry H. Laughlin, “Analysis of America’s modern melting pot,” in Hearings before the House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization, House of Representatives, 67th Congress, 3rd Session (Washington, DC: GPO, 1922), 724-769
22 Harry H. Laughlin, “Calculations on the working out of a proposed program of sterilization,” in Proceedings of the National Conference on Race Betterment, January 8-12 1914 (Battle Creek, MI: Race Betterment Foundation, 1914) 478-492
23 Madison Grant, The Passing of the Great Race, or, the Racial Basis of European History (New York, NY: Scribners, 1922) 213-227.
24 Paul Popenoe and Roswell Hill Johnson, Applied Eugenics (New York, NY: Macmillan, 1933) 123-180.
PART VI. EUGENICS AND GENETICS
25 David Heron, Mendelism and the Problem of Mental Defect: a Criticism of Recent American Work. No. 7 in series, Questions of the Day and Fray (London: Dulau, 1913) 3 - 62
26 Sewall Wright, “Correlation and causation,” J. Agricultural Research (1921) 20:557-585.
27 Lancelot Hogben, Genetic Principles in Medicine and Social Science (London: Williams and Wilkins, 1931; New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1932) 68-90; 200-220.
28 Lionel Penrose, Mental Defect in series Textbooks of Social Biology, edited by Lancelot Hogben. (London: Sidgewick, 1933) 1-13; 85-95.
29 J.B. S. Haldane, “Evolution and our weak points,” Science Advances (London: Allen and Unwin, 1947) 118-120.
30 J.B.S. Haldane, Heredity and Politics (New York, NY: Norton, 1938) 13-44.
31 Letitia Fairfield, The Case against Sterilisation (London: Catholic Truth Society, 2nd ed., 1935), pp 3-33
32 Fritz Lenz, “Methods for the study of human heredity,” from Erwin Baur, Eugen Fischer and Fritz Lenz, Human Heredity translated by Eden and Cedar Paul (London: Unwin, 1931) 495-561.
34 John Burdon Sanderson Haldane, “A provisional map of a human chromosome,” Nature (1936) 137:398-400.
PART VII. EUGENIK AND RASSENHYGIENE: EUGENICS IN GERMANY
35 Ernst Rüdin, “Praktische Ergebnisse der psychiatrischen Erblichkeitsforschung,” Archiv für Rassen- und Gesellschaftsbiologie (1930) 24:228-237. Translated by P. M H. Mazumdar as Rüdin, “Practical results of research in psychiatric genetics.”
36 Fritz Lenz, “Die Stellung des Nationalsozialismus zur Rassenhygiene,” Archiv für Rassen- und Gesellschaftsbiologie (1931) 25:300-308. Translated by P. M. H. Mazumdar as “The position of National Socialism on race hygiene.”
37 Hermann Muckermann, Eugenik und Katholizismus (Berlin: Metzner Verlag, 1933). Translated and annotated by P.M. H. Mazumdar.
38 Pope Pius XI, Casti connubii Encyclical of 31:XII:1930 on Christian marriage.
PART VIII. FRANCE: EUGENICS AND LAMARKISM
First International Eugenics Congress, London, July 24-30, 1912:
39 François Hallopeau, “Sur la prophylaxie de la syphilis héréditaire et son action eugénique,” Problems in Eugenics (London: Eugenics Education Society, 1912) 343-350. Translated by The Eugenics Society as, “On the prevention of hereditary syphilis and its eugenic effect.”
40 Adolphe Pinard, “Considérations générales sur “La puériculture avant la procréation,”” Problems in Eugenics (London: Eugenics Education Society, 1912) 457-459. Translated as, “General remarks on ‘Puericulture before procreation.’ ’’
Congress of the Royal Institute of Public Health, Paris, May 15-19, 1913:
41 [Anon] Report on Section on Eugenics and Child Study: “Eugenics and Public Health,” Eugenics Review (1913) 5:157-165.
The First World War:
42 Lucien March, “Some attempts towards race hygiene in France during the war,” Eugenics Review (1918) 10:195-212.
43 Charles Robert Richet, “Le problème ou le préjugé des races,” Revue générale des sciences pures et appliqués, (1906) 16: 883-891.
Translated by P. M. H. Mazumdar as Richet, “Race problem or race prejudice.”
44 Charles Robert Richet, La sélection humaine (Paris: Félix Alcan, 1912-1919) “Conclusions générales,” 224-235. Translated by P. M. H. Mazumdar, as “Overview and conclusion,” from Richet, Human Selection.
The Population Problem:
45 Hon. H. Onslow, “The French Commission on depopulation,” Eugenics Review (1913) 5:130152.
46 David V. Glass, The Struggle for Population (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1936) 16-32; 72-91.
47 Alexis Carrell, Man the Unknown (1935) (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1938) “The remaking of man,” 257-298.
PART IX. EUGENICS AND GENETICS IN THE SOVIET UNION
48 Batkis, G. K., “Evgenika,” from Bol’shaia sovetskaia entsiklopedia (1931) 23:812-819.
49 John Burdon Sanderson Haldane, “Vavilov,” and “Genetics in the Soviet Union,” reprinted in his Science Advances (London: Allen, 1947) 210-212; 220-223.
50 Raissa L. Berg, Sukhovei Vospominiania Genetika (New York: 1983) translated by David Lowe as Acquired Traits: Memoirs of a Geneticist from the Soviet Union (New York, NY: Viking-Penguin 1988 / Penguin 1990) 149-163; 270-318.
The Lysenko controversy ? contemporary voices:
51 Trofim Denisovitch Lysenko, Soviet Biology: Report to the Lenin Academy of Agricultural Sciences (London: Birch, 1948). Pp 5-51
52 P.S. Hudson and R. H. Richens, The New Genetics in the Soviet Union (Cambridge: Imperial Bureau of Plant Breeding and Genetics, 1946); On the evidence, 32-51; on the interpretation, 70-76.
PART X. SOUTH AMERICA: EUGENICS, PUÉRICULTURE AND RACELESSNESS
On puériculture and women:
53 Domingo F. Ramos, “Homiculture in its relations to eugenics in Cuba,” in Eugenics in Race and State: Scientific Papers of the Second International Congress of Eugenics, New York, 1921 (Baltimore, MD: Williams, 1923) 432-434.
54 Renato Ferraz Kehl, “Eugenics abroad, III. In Brazil,” Eugen. Rev. (1931-1932) 23: 234-236.
55 Renato Ferraz Kehl, “Eugenics in Brazil,” Eugen. Rev. (1936) 27:231-232
56 Gilberto Freyre, “Social life in Brazil in the middle of the XIXth century,” (1922) from The Hispano-American Review: Readings in Latin-American History (New York, NY: Crowell, 1966) vol. 2, “Since 1810,” pp. 215-236.
PART XI. EUGENICS IN CANADA: “OUR OWN MASTER RACE”
57 Helen MacMurchy, Sterilization? Birth Control? A Book for Family Welfare and Safety (Toronto: Macmillan, 1934) 9-84.
58 Madge Thurlow Macklin, “The value of medical genetics to the clinician,” in C. B. Davenport, C. E. Keeler, Maud Slye and Madge T. Macklin, Medical Genetics and Eugenics (Philadelphia, PA: Woman’s Medical College, 1940) 128-141.
59 Hervé Blais, Les tendances eugénistes au Canada (Montréal, Québec: L’Institute familiale, 1942) v-vii; “L’eugénique devant la pensée catholique,” 133-172. Translated by P. M. H. Mazumdar as, “Catholic thinking on eugenics” from Blais, The Eugenic Tendency in Canada (1942).
60 Gaston LaPierre, “Les campagnes internationales actuelles d’eugénisme,” Revue trimestrielle canadienne (1935) 21:356-372. Translated by P. M. H. Mazumdar as, “International eugenics today.”
61 Law Reform Commission, Sterilization: Implications for Mentally Retarded and Mentally Ill Persons Working Paper 24 (1979) 23-73.
62 Institute of Law Research and Reform, Edmonton, Alberta, Sterilization Decisions: Minors and Mentally Incompetent Adults Report for Discussion No.6 (March 1988) 41-83.
63 Institute of Law Research and Reform, Edmonton, Alberta, Competence and Human Reproduction Report No. 52 (February 1989) 31-45.
64 Anne Marie Owen, “Alberta woman fights to control money / STERILIZATION VICTIM / Government handles claimants’ money that it awarded,” National Post, (Wednesday April 7 1999) A.
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