In recent years, the Leveson Inquiry in Great Britain, as well as the EU High-Level Group on Media Freedom and Pluralism, have stirred heated debates about media accountability and media self-regulation across Europe. How responsible are journalists? How well-developed are infrastructures of media self-regulation in the different European countries? How much commitment to media accountability is there in the media industry – and how actively do media users become involved in the process of media criticism via social media?
With contributions from leading scholars in the field of journalism and mass communication, this handbook brings together reports on the status quo of media accountability in all EU members states as well as key countries close to Europe, such as Turkey and Israel. Each chapter provides an up-to-date overview of media accountability structures as well as a synopsis of relevant research, exploring the role of media accountability instruments in each national setting, including both media self-regulation (such as codes of ethics, press councils, ombudspersons) and new instruments that involve audiences and stakeholder groups (such as media blogs and user comment systems).
A theoretically informed, cross-national comparative analysis of the state of media accountability in contemporary Europe, this handbook constitutes an invaluable basis for further research and policy-making and will appeal to students and scholars of media studies and journalism, as well as policy-makers and practitioners.
Table of Contents
List of Contributors
List of Figures and Tables
Chapter 1. Introduction
Tobias Eberwein, Susanne Fengler & Matthias Karmasin
Chapter 2. Austria: Back on the Democratic Corporatist Road?
Matthias Karmasin, Klaus Bichler & Andy Kaltenbrunner
Chapter 3. Belgium: Divided Along Language Lines
Karin Raeymaeckers & François Heinderyckx
Chapter 4. Bulgaria: Regaining Media Freedom
Bissera Zankova & Michał Głowacki
Chapter 5. Croatia: Unfulfilled Expectations
Chapter 6. Cyprus: Behind Closed (Journalistic) Doors
Dimitra L. Milioni, Lia-Paschalia Spyridou & Michalis Koumis
Chapter 7. Czech Republic: The Market Governs
Chapter 8. Denmark: Voluntary Accountability Driven by Political Pressure
Mark Blach-Ørsten, Jannie Møller Hartley & Sofie Flensburg
Chapter 9. Estonia: Conflicting Views on Accountability Practices
Urmas Loit, Epp Lauk & Halliki Harro-Loit
Chapter 10. Finland: The Empire Renewing Itself
Jari Väliverronen & Heikki Heikkilä
Chapter 11. France: Media Accountability as an Abstract Idea?
Olivier Baisnée, Ludivine Balland & Sandra Vera Zambrano
Chapter 12. Germany: Disregarded Diversity
Tobias Eberwein, Susanne Fengler, Mariella Bastian & Janis Brinkmann
Chapter 13. Greece: Between Systemic Inefficiencies and Nascent Opportunities Online
Evangelia Psychogiopoulou & Anna Kandyla
Chapter 14. Hungary: Difficult Legacy, Slow Transformation
Chapter 15. Ireland: Moving from Courts to Institutions of Accountability
Chapter 16. Israel: Media in Political Handcuffs
Noam Lemelshtrich Latar
Chapter 17. Italy: Transparency as an Inspiration
Chapter 18. Latvia: Different Journalistic Cultures and Different Accountability Within One Media System
Chapter 19. Lithuania: The Ideology of Liberalism and Its Flaws in the Democratic Performance of the Media
Kristina Juraitė, Auksė Balčytienė & Audronė Nugaraitė
Chapter 20. Luxembourg: Low Priority in a Confined Milieu
Chapter 21. Malta: Media Accountability as a Two-legged ‘Tripod’
Joseph Borg & Mary Anne Lauri
Chapter 22. The Netherlands: From Awareness to Realization
Harmen Groenhart & Huub Evers
Chapter 23. Norway: Journalistic Power Limits Media Accountability
Chapter 24. Poland: Accountability in the Making
Bogusława Dobek-Ostrowska, Michał Głowacki & Michał Kuś
Chapter 25. Portugal: Many Structures, Little Accountability
Nuno Moutinho, Helena Lima, Suzana Cavaco & Ana Isabel Reis
Chapter 26. Romania: Unexpected Pressures for Accountability
Mihai Coman, Daniela-Aurelia Popa & Raluca-Nicoleta Radu
Chapter 27. Russia: Media Accountability to the Public or the State?
Elena Vartanova & Maria Lukina
Chapter 28. Slovakia: Conditional Success of Ethical Regulation via Online Instruments
Chapter 29. Slovenia: The Paper Tiger of Media Accountability
Igor Vobič, Aleksander Sašo Slaček Brlek & Boris Mance
Chapter 30. Spain: New Formats and Old Crises
Salvador Alsius, Ruth Rodriguez-Martinez & Marcel Mauri de los Rios
Chapter 31. Sweden: A Long History of Media Accountability Adaption
Torbjörn von Krogh
Chapter 32. Switzerland: Role Model with Glitches
Chapter 33. Turkey: Sacrificing Credibility for Economic Expediency and Partisanship
Chapter 34. United Kingdom: Post-Leveson, Media Accountability is All Over the Place
Mike Jempson, Wayne Powell & Sally Reardon
Chapter 35. Summary: Measuring Media Accountability in Europe – and Beyond
Tobias Eberwein, Susanne Fengler, Katja Kaufmann, Janis Brinkmann & Matthias Karmasin
Tobias Eberwein is Senior Scientist at the Institute for Comparative Media and Communication Studies of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, and the Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, Austria.
Susanne Fengler is Professor of International Journalism and Director of the Erich Brost Institute for International Journalism at TU Dortmund University, Germany.
Matthias Karmasin is Professor at the Department of Media and Communications, Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, and Director of the Institute for Comparative Media and Communication Studies at the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, Austria.