2233 Pages
    by Routledge

    In the fifty or so years since the Treaty of Rome, the European Union has evolved far beyond the scope of any other comparable entity. The EU is now a unique model of international cooperation and integration, and its reach extends into almost every sphere of the lives of its half a billion citizens. As well as the establishment of a single market, the Union has its own currency, is developing a foreign policy, and has a growing role in justice and cultural matters.

    Scholarly work on the European Union has undergone a similarly rapid evolution. For example, with the major expansions of the Union since the end of the Cold War, there has been a huge growth in the range and depth of research into the many challenges of integration. As serious thinking about and around this and other crucial aspects of the European Union continues to flourish and develop, this new title in Routledge’s acclaimed Critical Concepts in Political Science series meets the need for an authoritative reference work to make sense of the subject’s vast literature and the continuing explosion in research output. Edited by Simon Usherwood, a leading EU scholar, it is a five-volume collection of foundational and cutting-edge contributions.

    The first volume in the collection (‘The Development of the European Union’) assembles the key work on the historical evolution of the European Union from the end of the Second World War to the present day. Even before the Constitutional Treaty proposed in 2004, there was much academic and political discussion about the degree and manner to which the EU transcended traditional political units and the materials gathered in Volume II (‘The Organization of the European Union and the Constitutional Turn’) explore the nature of the Union at this most fundamental level. The third volume in the collection (‘The Institutions of the European Union’) collects the most important research on the institutional structure of the EU. Here, the focus is on the dynamic processes at work within institutions and the models of understanding that academics have developed. Volume IV (‘Member States as Actors in the European Union’), meanwhile, brings together the best work on particular member states, considering, for example, why certain states have remained dominant actors within the Union, despite the scope and depth of EU expansion. In addition, the processes and outcomes which underpin this dominance—such as europeanisation—are also explored. The final volume in the collection (‘Citizens as Actors in the European Union’) concentrates on a very particular feature of the Union: the role of individual citizens. The material gathered here probes issues such as the perceived ‘democratic deficit’ in the Union.

    Fully indexed and with comprehensive introductions to each thematic part, newly written by the editor, which place the collected material in its historical and intellectual context, The European Union is an essential work of reference. It is destined to be valued by political science scholars and researchers—as well as by EU specialists and policy-makers—as a vital one-stop research tool.


    Volume I: The Development of the European Union

    Origins: Ideas and Wellsprings

    1. B. Rittberger, ‘The Historical Origins of the EU’s System of Representation’, Journal of European Public Policy, 2009, 16, 1, 43–61.

    2. E. Olsen, ‘The Origins of European Citizenship in the First Two Decades of European Integration’, Journal of European Public Policy, 2008, 15, 1, 40–57.

    The Developing Community

    3. S. Hoffmann, ‘Obstinate or Obsolete? The Fate of the Nation State and the Case of Western Europe’, Daedalus, 1966, 95, 3, 862–915.

    4. G. Marks, L. Hooghe, and K. Blank, ‘European Integration from the 1980s: State-Centric v. Multi-Level Governance’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 1996, 34, 3, 341–78.

    5. W. Wallace and J. Smith, ‘Democracy or Technocracy? European Integration and the Problem of Popular Consent’, West European Politics, 1995, 18, 3, 137–57.

    The Emergent Union

    6. W. Sandholtz, ‘Choosing Union: Monetary Politics and Maastricht’, International Organization, 1993, 47, 1, 1–39.

    7. M. Pollack, ‘The End of Creeping Competence? EU Policy-Making since Maastricht’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 2000, 38, 3, 519–38.

    8. K. Nicolaïdis, ‘Trusting the Poles? Constructing Europe through Mutual Recognition’, Journal of European Public Policy, 2007, 14, 5, 682–98.

    9. A. Schäfer, ‘Beyond the Community Method: Why the Open Method of Coordination was Introduced to EU Policy-Making’, European Integration Online Papers, 2004, 8, 13.

    Theoretical Perspectives

    10. T. Selck, M. Rhinard, and F. Häge, ‘The Evolution of European Legal Integration’, European Journal of Law and Economics, 2007, 24, 3, 187–200.

    11. P. Pierson, ‘The Path to European Integration: A Historical Institutionalist Analysis’, Comparative Political Studies, 1996, 29, 2, 123–63.

    12. W. Kaiser, ‘History Meets Politics: Overcoming Interdisciplinary Volapük in Research on the EU’, Journal of European Public Policy, 2008, 15, 2, 300–13.

    13. C. Shore, ‘Forging a European Nation-State? The European Union and Questions of Culture’, Building Europe: The Cultural Politics of European Integration (Routledge, 2000), pp. 15–39.

    14. L. Hooghe and G. Marks, ‘European Union?’, West European Politics, 2008, 31, 1, 108–29.

    15. A. Moravcsik, ‘European Integration in Retrospect’, The Choice for Europe: Social Purpose and State Power from Messina to Maastricht (UCL Press, 1998), pp. 472–502.

    Volume II: The Organisation of the European Union and the Constitutional Turn

    Constitutionality and Integration Theory

    16. J. Caporaso, ‘The European Union and Forms of State: Westphalian, Regulatory or Post-Modern?’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 1996, 34, 1, 29–52.

    17. A. Sweet and T. Brunell, ‘Constructing a Supranational Constitution: Dispute Resolution and Governance in the European Community’, American Political Science Review, 1998, 92, 1, 63–81.

    18. M. Pollack, ‘Theorizing the European Union: International Organization, Domestic Polity, or Experiment in New Governance?’, Annual Review of Political Science, 2005, 8, 357–98.

    19. L. Hooghe and G. Marks, ‘A Postfunctionalist Theory of European Integration: From Permissive Consensus to Constraining Dissensus’, British Journal of Political Science, 2009, 39, 1, 1–23.

    20. Jan Zielonka, ‘Introduction: The Neo-Medieval Paradigm’, Europe as Empire: The Nature of the Enlarged European Union (Oxford University Press, 2007), pp. 1–20.

    21. A. Sbragia, ‘Comparative Regionalism: What Might it Be?’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 2008, 46, 29–49.

    Constitutionality in Practice

    22. D. Finke, ‘Challenges to Intergovernmentalism: An Empirical Analysis of EU Treaty Negotiations since Maastricht’, West European Politics, 2009, 32, 3, 466–95.

    23. J. Pollak, ‘Contested Meanings of Representation’, Comparative European Politics, 2007, 5, 1, 87–103.

    24. F. Schimmelfennig et al., ‘Conditions for EU Constitutionalization: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis’, Journal of European Public Policy, 2006, 13, 8, 1168–89.

    25. G. Tsebelis and G. Garrett, ‘The Institutional Foundations of Intergovernmentalism and Supranationalism in the European Union’, International Organization, 2001, 55, 2, 357–90.

    26. Y. Devuyst, ‘The European Union’s Constitutional Order? Between Community Method and Ad Hoc Compromise’, Berkeley Journal of International Law, 2000, 18, 1, 1–52.

    27. R. Vetters, E. Jentges, and H.-J. Trenz, ‘Whose Project is it? Media Debates on the Ratification of the EU Constitutional Treaty’, Journal of European Public Policy, 2009, 16, 3, 412–30.

    28. T. Risse and M. Kleine, ‘Assessing the Legitimacy of the EU’s Treaty Revision Methods’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 2007, 45, 1, 69–80.

    29. S. Hug and T. Schulz, ‘Referendums and Ratification of the EU Constitution’, in Z. Pállinger et al. (eds.), Direct Democracy in Europe: Developments and Prospects (Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2007), pp. 174–88.

    30. P. Schlesinger and F. Foret, ‘Political Roof and Sacred Canopy? Religion and the EU Constitution’, European Journal of Social Theory, 2006, 9, 1, 59–82.

    The Limits to Constitutionality

    31. H. Hansen-Magnusson and A. Wiener, ‘Studying Contemporary Constitutionalism: Memory, Myth and Horizon’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 2010, 48, 1, 21–44.

    32. A. Cohen and A. Vauchez, ‘Back to the "Future of Europe": A Political Sociology of EU Constitutional Saga’ (Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies Working Paper, European University Institute, 2008).

    Volume III: The Institutions of the European Union

    The Organizational Logic of the Institutions

    33. S. Hix, ‘Explaining the EU Political System’, The Political System of the European Union, 2nd edn. (Palgrave, 2005), pp. 1–23.

    34. S. Princen and B. Kerremans, ‘Opportunity Structures in the EU Multi-Level System’, West European Politics, 2008, 31, 6, 1129–46.

    The Commission as the ‘European’ Interest

    35. S. Mayer, ‘Path Dependence and Commission Activism in the Evolution of the European Union’s External Energy Policy’, Journal of International Relations and Development, 2008, 11, 3, 251–78.

    36. M. Tsakatika, ‘Claims to Legitimacy: The European Commission between Continuity and Change’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 2009, 43, 1, 193–220.

    37. L. Tholoniat, ‘The Temporal Constitution of the European Commission: A Timely Investigation’, Journal of European Public Policy, 2009, 16, 2, 221–38.

    38. S. Napel and M. Widgrén, ‘The European Commission: Appointment, Preferences, and Institutional Relations’, Public Choice, 2008, 137, 1–2, 21–41.

    The European Parliament as the Popular Interest

    39. S. Hix, A. Noury, and G. Roland, ‘Voting Patterns and Alliance Formation in the European Parliament’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 2009, 364, 821–31.

    40. N. Yordanova, ‘The Rationale Behind Committee Assignment in the European Parliament’, European Union Politics, 2009, 10, 2, 253–80.

    41. B. Lindberg, A. Rasmussen, and A. Warntjen, ‘Party Politics as Usual? The Role of Political Parties in EU Legislative Decision-Making’, Journal of European Public Policy, 2008, 15, 8, 1107–26.

    The Council as the Member States’ Interest

    42. J. Barr and F. Passarelli, ‘Who has the Power in the EU?’, Mathematical Social Sciences, 2009, 57, 3, 339–66.

    43. E. Fouilleux, J. de Maillard, and A. Smith, ‘Technical or Political? The Working Groups of the EU Council of Ministers’, Journal of European Public Policy, 2005, 12, 4, 609–23.

    44. J. Schalk et al., ‘The Power of the Presidency in EU Council Decision-Making’, European Union Politics, 2007, 8, 2, 229–50.

    45. R. Thomson, ‘The Council Presidency in the European Union: Responsibility with Power’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 2008, 46, 3, 593–617.

    The European Council

    46. J. Tallberg, ‘Bargaining Power in the European Council’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 2008, 46, 3, 685–708.

    47. J. Tallberg and K. M. Johansson, ‘Party Politics in the European Council’, Journal of European Public Policy, 2008, 15, 8, 1222–42.

    48. A. Cornia, J. Lönnendonker, and P. Nitz, ‘European Councils as First Encounters of Trans-European Media Communication?’, Journalism, 9, 4, 493–515.

    The European Court of Justice as the Legal Interest

    49. K. Alter, ‘Who are the "Masters of the Treaty"? European Governments and the European Court of Justice’, International Organization, 1998, 52, 1, 121–47.

    50. D. Panke, ‘The European Court of Justice as an Agent of Europeanization? Restoring Compliance with EU Law’, Journal of European Public Policy, 2007, 14, 6, 847–66.

    51. C. Carrubba, M. Gabel, and C. Hankla, ‘Judicial Behavior under Political Constraints: Evidence from the European Court of Justice’, American Political Science Review, 2008, 102, 4, 435–52.

    Volume IV: Member States as Actors in the European Union

    The Formal Position of States within the Union

    52. H. Wallace, ‘Exercising Power and Influence in the European Union; The Roles of Member States’, in S. Bulmer and C. Lequesne (eds.), The Member States of the European Union (Oxford University Press, 2005), pp. 25–44.

    53. R. Thomson, ‘Same Effects in Different Worlds: The Transposition of EU Directives’, Journal of European Public Policy, 2009, 16, 1, 1–18.


    Models of Europeanization

    54. T. Börzel, ‘Europeanization: How the European Union interacts with its Member States’, in S. Bulmer and C. Lequesne (eds.), The Member States of the European Union (Oxford University Press, 2005), pp. 45–69.

    55. C. Radaelli, ‘Europeanisation: Solution or Problem?’, European Integration Online Papers, 2004, 8, 16.

    56. E. Mastenbroek and M. Kaeding, ‘Europeanization Beyond the Goodness of Fit: Domestic Politics in the Forefront’, Comparative European Politics, 2006, 4, 4, 331–54.

    Bottom-Up Elements

    57. J. Arregui and R. Thomson, ‘States’ Bargaining Success in the European Union’, Journal of European Public Policy, 2009, 655–76.

    58. C. Carrubba, ‘The Electoral Connection in European Union Politics’, Journal of Politics, 2001, 63, 1, 141–58.

    Top-Down Elements

    59. J. Olsen, ‘The Many Faces of Europeanization’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 2002, 40, 5, 921–52.

    60. C. Knill, J. Tosun, and M. Bauer, ‘Neglected Faces of Europeanization: The Differential Impact of The EU on the Dismantling and Expansion of Domestic Policies’, Public Administration, 2009, 87, 3, 519–37.

    61. F. Schimmelfennig and U. Sedelmeier, ‘Governance by Conditionality: EU Rule Transfer to the Candidate Countries of Central and Eastern Europe’, Journal of European Public Policy, 2004, 11, 4, 661–79.

    62. U. Sverdrup and S. Kux, ‘Fuzzy Borders and Adaptive Outsiders: Norway, Switzerland, and the EU’, Journal of European Integration, 2000, 22, 3, 237–70.

    63. M. Heidenreich and G. Bischoff, ‘The Open Method of Co-ordination: A Way to the Europeanization of Social and Employment Policies?’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 2008, 46, 3, 497–532.

    The Shift from Nation-State to Member State

    64. B. Laffan, R. O’Donnell, and M. Smith, ‘European States and Nations’, Europe’s Experimental Union: Rethinking Integration (Routledge, 2000), pp. 13–32.

    65. B. Jessop, ‘Multi-Level Governance and Multi-Level Metagovernance Changes in the European Union as Integral Moments in the Transformation and Reorientation of Contemporary Statehood’, in I. Bache and M. Flinders (eds.), Multi-Level Governance (Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 49–74.

    66. B. Kohler-Koch and R. Rittberger, ‘The "Governance Turn" in EU Studies’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 2006, 44, 1, 27–49.

    Volume V: Citizens as Actors in the European Union

    The Creation of the European Citizen

    67. F. Jacobs, ‘Citizenship of the European Union: A Legal Analysis’, European Law Journal, 2007, 13, 5, 591–610.

    68. D. Kostakopoulou, ‘The Evolution of European Union Citizenship’, European Political Science, 2008, 7, 3, 285–95.

    69. S. Duchesne, ‘Waiting for a European Identity: Reflections on the Process of Identification with Europe’, Perspectives on European Politics and Society, 2008, 9, 4, 397–410.

    Citizens as Actors

    European Level

    70. S. Saurugger, ‘Interest Groups and Democracy in the European Union’, West European Politics, 2008, 31, 6, 1274–91.

    71. D. Coen, ‘Empirical and Theoretical Studies in EU Lobbying’, Journal of European Public Policy, 2007, 14, 3, 333–45.

    72. A. Dür, ‘Interest Groups in the European Union: How Powerful are They?’, West European Politics, 2008, 31, 6, 1212–30.

    73. S. Wright, ‘A Virtual European Public Sphere? The Futurum Discussion Forum’, Journal of European Public Policy, 2007, 14, 8, 1167–85.

    National Level

    74. R. Eichenberg and R. Dalton, ‘Post-Maastricht Blues: The Transformation of Citizen Support for European Integration, 1973-2004’, Acta Politica, 2007, 42, 2–3, 128–52.

    75. J. Garry, M. Marsh, and R. Sinnott, ‘"Second-Order" versus "Issue-Voting" Effects in EU Referendums: Evidence from the Irish Nice Treaty Referendum’, European Union Politics, 2005, 6, 2, 201–21.

    76. M. Lubbers, ‘Regarding the Dutch "Nee" to the European Constitution: A Test of the Identity, Utilitarian and Political Approaches to Voting "No"’, European Union Politics, 2008, 9, 1, 59–86.

    77. S. Usherwood, ‘Proximate Factors in the Mobilization of Anti-EU Groups in France and the UK: The European Union as First-Order Politics’, Journal of European Integration, 2007, 29, 1, 3–21.

    78. M. Steenbergen, E. Edwards, and C. de Vries, ‘Who’s Cueing Whom? Mass-Elite Linkages and the Future of European Integration’, European Union Politics, 2007, 8, 1, 13–35.

    79. L. McLaren, ‘Explaining Mass-Level Euroscepticism: Identity, Interests, and Institutional Distrust’, Acta Politica, 2007, 42, 2–3, 233–51.

    The Problems of Popular Involvement

    80. J. Bowman, ‘The European Union Democratic Deficit: Federalists, Skeptics, and Revisionists’, European Journal of Political Theory, 2006, 50, 2, 191–212.

    81. A. Moravcsik, ‘In Defence of the Democratic Deficit’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 2002, 40, 4, 603–24.

    82. A. Føllesdal and S. Hix, ‘Why There is a Democratic Deficit in the EU: A Response to Majone and Moravcsik’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 2006, 44, 3, 533–62.

    83. T. Zweifel, ‘… Who is Without Sin Cast the First Stone: The EU’s Democratic Deficit in Comparison’, Journal of European Public Policy, 2002, 9, 5, 812–40.


    Simon Usherwood is Lecturer in Politics at the University of Surrey. He is the co-author of OUP’s The European Union: A Very Short Introduction (2007).