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1st Edition

The Evolution of Geotech - 25 Years of Innovation

    ISBN 9781032036458
    690 Pages
    Published November 24, 2021 by CRC Press

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    This publication includes 82 technical papers presented at Rocscience International Conference (RIC) 2021, held online on April 20 and 21, 2021. Rocscience created this event to bring geotechnical academics, researchers and practitioners together to exchange ideas as part of celebrating 25 years of the company’s existence.

    The papers in these proceedings were from keynotes, panel discussions and papers, selected after careful review of over 100 technical submissions delivered at RIC 2021. The technical papers were grouped into sessions based on their subject areas.

    The conference aimed to stimulate discussions that could help the industry work towards overcoming geotechnical engineering limitations today. It also sought to foster creative thinking that will advance the current states of the art and practice. The keynote addresses, panel discussions and technical presentations tried to examine geotechnical problems and situations from fresh perspectives.

    RIC 2021 hopes that the proceedings will continue to enrich our thinking and contribute to achieving a critical mass of change in our practices and approaches. We look forward to significant improvements in our industry.

    Keynote Lectures

    Reflections on 40+ years of rock engineering practice in mining

    W.F. Bawden

    Recent Advances in Seismic Soil Liquefaction Engineering

    K.O. Cetin & H. T. Bilge

    Advances in data-driven subsurface mapping

    K-K Phoon & J. Ching

    After decades of rock engineering modelling, are we asking the right questions?

    M.S. Diederichs

    Position Papers for Panel Discussion 1

    Comprehensive Slope Monitoring Program for Managing LargeScale Instabilities: A Contribution to "From Monitoring and Calibration to Predictive Modelling"

    N. Coli

    Position Paper for "From Monitoring and Calibration to Predictive Modelling" Panel Discussion - Thoughts on Instrumentation/Monitoring and Numerical Model Calibration

    W.F. Bawden

    Panel Discussion: From Monitoring and Calibration to Predictive Modelling – Continuously Improving Models with Monitoring Data

    N. Bar

    Real-Time Data Collection from InSAR is Coming Soon: A Contribution to "From Monitoring and Calibration to Predictive Modelling" Panel Discussion

    D. Colombo

    Position Papers for Panel Discussion 2

    Position Paper on Numerical Modelling: Perspectives from Technical Support on User Models

    B. Corkum

    Position Paper on Numerical Modelling: Philosophy

    J. Carvalho

    Position Paper on Numerical Modelling: Numerical Modelling Philosophy

    T. R. Stacey

    Position Paper on Numerical Modelling: Challenges in Tailings Dam Models

    T. Bretas

    Technical Sessions

    Session 1 - Rock Mass Characterization:

    Towards improved definition of the Hoek-Brown constant mi for numerical modelling

    T.G. Carter

    Study of the Effect on Stability of Slope Variations and Reserve Estimation in the Kaolin Mining Quarry Design

    I. Chusna, N.R. Mulyaputra, V. Vergiagara & H. Suharyadi

    How to incorporate variability of rockmass structures into equivalent continuum numerical models using the Composite Geological Strength Index

    J. Day

    Rock Mass Characterization of Molasse-like Deposit of Dahor Formation and Its Application To Rock Slope Stability From Bunati Area, South Kalimantan: A Preliminary Study

    L. Zeremy

    Session 2 - Tunnels & Caverns I

    Brittle failure assessment for TBM tunneling under high overburden: A case study from Pahang-Selangor Raw Water Transfer Tunnel Project, Malaysia `

    H.H. Shaalan, M.A.M. Ismail, R. Azit & I.N. Yusof

    Use of continuum and pseudo-discontinuum FEM models in stepwise verification of the FDEM for simulating damage around tunnels in brittle rock

    S. Markus & M. Diederichs

    Numerical investigation of the relationship between the inflow rate to the tunnel, block volume and block surface area

    A. Shahbazi, A. Saeidi & R. Chesnaux

    Severe rockburst occurrence during construction of a complex hydroelectric plantG. Russo

    Session 3 - Stability Analysis of Mining Slopes IA

    nalytical versus numerical analysis on slope stability of surface lignite mines

    A. Mikroutsikos, A. Theocharis, N. Koukouzas & I. Zevgolis

    Practicalities when adopting a gradational damage factor within a Hoek-Brown constitutive model

    P. Edmondson & V. Pere

    Open pit 3D slope stability for anisotropic rock masses in soft iron ore deposits – A case study

    L.T. Figueiredo, R. Hammah, Y. Santos, T. Souza & C. Nogueira

    Comparison of the probabilistic and deterministic slope stability analysis of a dolomite quarry in HungaryG. Bögöly & F. Füzesi

    Session 4 - Probabilistic Slope Stability Analysis I

    Considering multiple failure modes: a comparison of probabilistic analysis and multi-modal optimization for a 3D slope stability case study

    B. Cami, T. Yacoub, T. Ma, B. Corkum & S. Javankhoshdel

    Assessment of asperities geometry influence on MSW landfill critical interface side-slope stability using probabilistic analysis 199

    D.D. Adeleke, D. Kalumba, L. Nolutshugu & J. Oriokot

    Schematization of Soil Properties in Mathematical Modeling of Slope StabilityI. Fomenko

    Session 5 - New Technologies in Geotechnical Engineering

    Artificial intelligence and image processing in the MIRET approach for the water detection and integrated geotechnical management of existing mechanized tunnels: methodology, algorithm and case study

    F. Foria, D. Cuccato, M. Calicchio, S. Rinaldo, A. Tarquini, & G. Bomben

    An integrated geotechnical risk management approach using cloud-based risk assessments, artificial intelligence, satellite monitoring and drone technology

    J. Strydom

    Remote sensing and mapping of geological rock-mass features employing advanced data analytics and artificial intelligence.

    S. Amvrazis, J. Patzelt, C. Binder, M. Smesnik & A. Freuis

    Tunnel liner yield forecasting at Cigar Lake Mine: an Input Omission approach to understanding machine learning processesJ. Morgenroth, M.A. Perras & U. T. Khan

    Session 6 - Surface Excavations

    Evaluation of theoretical liquefaction of compacted tailings piles based on the state parameter approach: a case study

    E. O. Muguet & R. Silva

    Lessons Learnt from 3D Soil-Structure Modeling of a Peanut Shaped Cofferdam for Cut & Cover Tunnel

    A.K.L. Kwong

    Field instrumentation based performance verification of an improved soil siteA. Yunatci, H. Bilge, E. Çakır & Y.U. Doğan

    Session 7 - 3D Slope Stability Analysis

    Finite element analysis of a deep excavation: A case study ground response due to deep excavations in Sydney Sandstone

    M. Kitson & M. Kitson

    North wall stability analysis of Vasilkovskoye open pit Kazakhstan

    D. Dossymbek & S. Mortazavi

    3-D stability analyses in soft clays with strain-softening

    M.P. Pacheco & M. Pacheco

    On the comparison of 2D and 3D stability analyses of an anisotropic slopeA. McQuillan, N. Bar & T. Yacoub

    Session 8 - Numerical Slope Stability Analysis I

    Numerical profile modeling for transient groundwater flow at pit slope

    E. Leonteva & R. Sapachev

    Soil-Structure Interaction of Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) Retaining Walls Subjected to Construction Sequencing and Seismic Loading

    L.L. Clemente, G.P. Ventura & PE.B. Quinay

    2D and 3D Numerical Study of Geosynthetic Mechanically Stabilized Earth GMSE Walls

    E.L.A. Montilla, E.R. Esquivel & F.H. Martins Portelinha

    2D and 3D FEM modeling of the initiation of progressive landslidesR. Dey & S. Javankhoshdel

    Session 9 - Liquefaction & Foundation Analysis

    Bearing capacity and settlement analysis of closely spaced shallow foundations with various footing geometry on multi-layered soils

    M.E.C. Amorin & G.P. Ventura

    Behaviour of Rigid Block on Uniform Sand Under Horizontal Base Acceleration

    N. Trbović, V. Jagodnik & N. Čeh

    Skin Friction Displacement Relations for Load Settlement Behaviour of Bored Piles in Dubai

    A. Mufty

    Implementation of Constrained Differential Evolution in Reliability-based Evaluation of Soil-Structure Interactioninfluenced Liquefaction PotentialC.R. Guanzon, G.P. Ventura & A.S. Freire

    Session 10 - Stability Analysis of Mining Slopes II

    The effect of water filling on slope stability of open pits: a numerical investigation

    I. Zevgolis, A. Mikroutsikos & A.I. Theocharis

    Geotechnical Analysis of Cut and Fill Mining Sequence on Dumping Materials Re-handling XPit by Using Slide3

    P. Handanawarih & Z.I. Munthaha

    3D Slope Stability Analysis of a Filtered Iron Ore Tailings Dry Stacking

    A.S. Freire, T.C. Bretas, T.B.G. Moreira & M.C. Medeiros

    Slope Angle Optimization Applied for Geometry Design Of An Open Pit Iron Ore MineM. C. Medeiros, B.A. Alemão, M .A.P. Guimarães, T.C. Bretas, F. F.M. Vilela, T.B.G. Moreira

    Session 11 - Probabilistic Slope Stability Analysis II

    Back Analysis For Landslide In Mine Waste Dump Slope Using Probabilistic Analysis

    G. Firmanda, A. Gemas & P. Nayoan

    Reliability analysis of soil nail walls using SRV and RLEM approaches

    S.M. Asadollahi, M. Rezvani, A. Fakher & S. Javankhoshdel

    Probabilistic slope stability analysis of a case study using Random Limit Equilibrium Method and Surface Altering Optimization

    S. Javankhoshdel, T. Ma, B. Cami, R.J. Chenari & T. Yacoub

    Simulating the topography induced stresses using 3D numerical modelingW. Ali & R.A. Abdullah

    Session 12 - Numerical Slope Stability Analysis II

    Consistent evaluation of slope safety factors between different strength criteria

    J. Clausen

    Global Stability Assessment of Open Pit Slopes Using LEM and FEM: A Comparison between the Factor of Safety and Strength Reduction Factor

    J. Goodale & B. Fisher

    A simple method to model buckling slope instability using continuum numerical models

    R. Ridl, D.H. Bell, M.C. Villenueve & D.F. Macfarlane

    Interaction of Twin Tunnels within Weak Rock Masses and SlopesI. Vazaios & N. Vlachopoulos

    Session 13 - Tunnels & Caverns II

    The probabilistic analysis of steep lakeside slopes; geotechnical-geological-hydrogeological constraints and numerical analysis, an example from Hungary

    F. K. Nagy-Göde & Á. Török

    Weathered Rock and Crack Detection of Tunnel Excavation using Image Analysis

    I.N. Yusoff, T. Miyoshi, M.A.M. Ismail, K. Date, H. Tobe & Y. Yokota

    Numerical investigation of the stability of tunnel excavation faces in deep tunnels

    D. Georgiou, M. Kavvadas & A. Kalos

    A numerical investigation on the influence of rockmass parameters and yield mechanics in pillar designE.J. Dressel & M. Diederichs

    Session 14 - Stability Analysis of Mining Slopes IIIC

    ontinuous Wall Stabilization of Impoundment Slopes

    W. Carswell, L.C. Barlow & D.R. Siebert

    Landslide Hazard and Risk Level Assessment of Quarried Slopes in Lebanon using Drone Imagery

    R. Kaafarani & G.A. Jaoude

    Back-analysis of ductile slope failure mechanisms and validation with aerial photogrammetry, InSAR and GbRAR to proactively manage economic risks to protect the mine plan

    N. Bar, L.A. Mosquea, M. Arrieta, B. Mojica, A. Espino, A. McQuillan, C. Diaz, G. Baldeon, G. Falorni

    Comparison between GSI-based implicit and explicit structure modelsC. Fischer & M.S. Diederichs

    Session 15 - Spatial Variability in Probabilistic Slope Stability Analysis

    Probabilistic analysis of geosynthetic reinforced slopes using 2D and 3D models

    P. Dastpak, B. Cami, D. Dias, S. Javankhoshdel & R.J. Chenari

    A stochastic spatial modeling approach for pit slope stability analysis using 3D Limit Equilibrium Analysis

    F. Cudjoe & K. Esmaeili

    Developing spatially constrained Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) models for a stochastic pit slope stability analysis

    Y. Zhao , K. Esmaeili & J. Ran

    Probabilistic Analysis of an Open Pit Mine Slope in the Central African Copperbelt with Spatially Variable StrengthsS. Cylwik, S.B. Cox & J.J. Potter

    Session 16 - Numerical Analysis of Underground Excavations

    Options for designing a hold-retain strategy for excavations in stratified rock

    R. Seedsman

    The fast multipole method for the computation of large-scale three-dimensional elastostatics boundary-element problems in underground excavations

    H. Wahanik, S. Moallemi, J.H. Curran & T. Yacoub

    Life-of-mine deformation and stability assessment for Kibali conditions in Western 9000 series lodes 569  

    G. Kaleba

    Numerical models for the design and construction of new underground structures at CERN (HL-LHC), Point 5D. Merlini, M. Falanesca, G. Bella, R. Schürch, F. Gianelli, A. Luz Lopez- Hernandez

    Session 17 - Stability Analysis of Jointed Rock Slopes

    Modelling the effectiveness of a grout curtain for construction groundwater control in Karst for a lock excavation

    V. Bateman

    Application of discrete fracture networks (DFN`s) to the design of benches in an open pit mine in South Africa

    V. Kuppusamy

    Comparison of 2D-3D limit equilibrium and finite element methods for the analysis of bi-planar rock slope failures

    Y.U. Doğan & N.S. Isik

    On the use of Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM) for jointed rock slope problemsS. Moallemi, T. Yacoub, T. Yee, B. Corkum, D. Qi & J. Curran

    Session 18 - Limit Equilibrium Slope Stability Analysis

    Mitigation measures for the protection of working railway lines from landslides: the case study of Altare and Santuario

    F. Foria, R. Giordano & G. Cordua

    Can 2D cross sections be safely extrapolated?

    C. MacRobert, T. Mutede & N. de Koker

    Characterization and stabilization of a mine waste dump-landslide

    E. Türk, S. Oguzhan & Ö. Dumanlilar

    Case study – Development of a practical design for a landslip site using advanced geotechnical software.

    D. Egan, A.Zaharescu & I. Williams


    Dr. Reginald Hammah, P.Eng., is the Rock Mechanics Lead (West Africa) in the Accra office of Golder Associates. He has a strong background in numerical modelling and application of software tools to geomechanics problems, including stress and stability analysis of slopes and underground excavations. He is also very experienced in the use of probabilistic and risk assessment techniques in geotechnical analysis. Dr. Hammah graduated with a Masters degree in Structural Engineering from the Zaporozhye Industrial Institute in the Ukraine in 1993. He immediately went to Canada to pursue further studies and obtained his Ph.D. in Rock Mechanics from the University of Toronto in 1998. In December 1998, Dr. Hammah joined the Mine Waste Group in the Mississauga office of Golder Associates. He later moved to the Sudbury office as a Rock Mechanics Specialist. In 2000 he joined a team of professors at the University of Toronto to help apply for a major research grant from the W.M. Keck Foundation. Dr. Hammah served as research manager for the Lassonde Institute that was born out of this grant. He was also the Technical Co-Chair for the 2002 North American Rock Mechanics Symposium. Thereafter Dr. Hammah moved over full-time to Rocscience Inc. He participated in the development of programs such as Phase2, Slide and RocData. He also helped develop and teach several Rocscience training courses and seminars. Dr. Hammah rejoined Golder Associates in 2010 to help the company grow its business in Africa.

    Dr. Thamer Yacoub, P.Eng. is the CEO & President of Rocscience. He has more than 25 years of experience in geomechanics numerical modeling. Thamer has a wide range of experience in several numerical modeling applications, covering topics including slope stability analysis, settlement and foundation analysis, surface and underground stress analysis. He also has extensive experience in probabilistic analysis of slopes. Thamer received his Bachelors and Masters degrees in Civil Engineering in 1986 and 1990 from the University of Baghdad in Iraq. He then obtained his Ph.D. degree in numerical geomechanics from the University of Toronto, Canada in 1999. Thereafter, Thamer joined Rocscience Inc. as a geomechanics specialist in 1999. Thamer was involved in developing the boundary element engine for Examine, and the finite element engine for RS 2. He was also the lead developer for Settle. Thamer has extensive experience in fluid flow analysis and developed the groundwater engine for Slide 2 and RS 2. Ongoing areas of interest include material model development, soil-structure interaction, shear strength reduction, Slope stability analysis, and three-dimensional finite element modeling in RS 3. Thamer has developed and taught several Rocscience workshops and seminars. He is the primary course instructor for both the Rocscience standard short courses as well as the customized course packages. He has presented courses around the world in North and South America, the Middle East, Asia, New Zealand and Australia.

    Dr. John Curran is the founder and CEO of Rocscience and Robert Smith Professor Emeritus, Civil Engineering, University of Toronto. Over his 32-year career at the University of Toronto, he taught a wide range of subjects including rock and soil mechanics, soil dynamics, computational geomechanics, and the finite element method. His research focused on the development of boundary element and finite element techniques for 2D and 3D stress analysis of underground excavations including automated 3D finite element meshing techniques. He developed numerical techniques for modeling hydraulically propagated fractures in rock as well as constitutive models for with the anisotropic geomaterials. Most recently, he has been working on developing a rock fall simulator based on rigid body impact mechanics. Dr. Curran obtained his bachelor and master’s degrees in Civil Engineering at the University of Toronto and completed his Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley in 1976. He became an assistant professor in Civil Engineering at the University of Toronto in 1977 and became the 1st holder of the Robert M. Smith Chair in Geotechnical Analysis and Mine Design in 1996. He started Rocscience Inc. in 1996 as a spin-off company from his research group at the University of Toronto, a company that has been very successful in the technology transfer of academic knowledge to the working engineer, in the form of fast and easy to use software


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