The rise of the Japanese multinational company (JMNC) marked, from the 1980s onwards, an historic change in the structure and in the dynamics of the international economy. For the first time, businesses from a non-Western nation established a competitive global presence, and they did so by bringing their advanced products and management systems to the developed economies of Europe and North America. In the last 30 years, our interpretations of JMNCs have undergone a series of revisions. Korean firms followed JMNCs in the 1990s and the Chinese likewise in the 2000s. A seeming decline in JMNC competitiveness and developments in the structure of the international economy challenged a business model of parental company direction, control and capabilities. Both trends asked questions about how Japanese subsidiaries should operate in global production chains increasingly reliant on contracting out and off-shoring, and how JMNCs might engage more in strategic cooperation and empower subsidiary decision-making. The contributors to this volume consider a wide range of relevant issues: they demonstrate the long-term evolution of JMNCs; they compare the experience of JMNCs with firms from the other two major Asia Pacific economies, Korea and China; they evaluate the applicability of established foreign direct investment (FDI) theory to MNCs from Japan and the Asia Pacific; and they reflect on the internal organization of JMNCs at the global, national and subnational level. This book was originally published as a special issue of Asia Pacific Business Review.
1. Internationalization patterns and the evolution of multinational companies: comparing Japan, Korea, China and India Robert Fitzgerald and Chris Rowley
2. Whose fall and whose rise? Lessons of Japanese MNCs for Chinese and emerging economy MNCs Robert Fitzgerald and Huaichuan Rui
3. Is there an East Asian model of MNC internationalization? A comparative analysis of Japanese and Korean firms Martin Hemmert and Keith Jackson
4. An empirical investigation into the internationalization patterns of Japanese firms Pearlean Chadha and Jenny Berrill
5. Japanese production networks in India: spatial distribution, agglomeration and industry effects Sierk A. Horn & Adam R. Cross
6. MNCs from the Asia Pacific in the global economy: examples and lessons from Japan, Korea, China and India Robert Fitzgerald & Chris Rowley