The Experience and Fear of Violence in the Public Realm
Hegemonic Ideology and Individual Behaviour
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This book explores violent and discriminatory values and beliefs and their interconnectedness between societal echelons. Violence has a foundation and a context. It comes from somewhere and is directed at someone or something, and it has an ambience established through generations and political, financial and religious strategies. It fashions nation-states’ hegemonic ideology and frames individual behaviours and attitudes. Thus, creating a milieu that enables the normalisation of violence. The focus is on violence-infused behaviours and actions in the public realm, a multifunctional environment for social and cultural activities, as well as a workplace, entertainment, and transport hub. It is a public setting, sometimes demanding onerous deftness of individuals to stay safe. Attitudes, values and beliefs around violence, harassment, and discrimination in the public realm frequently occur openly without anyone noticing that a crime has been committed, including by close bystanders. An audience steeped in societal hegemonic social and cultural patriarchal ideology might be oblivious to harassing or discriminative behaviours and attitudes against females, minority genders, and ethnic minority groups. The habitual nature and normalisation of these invisible crimes make them easy to dismiss. Violence materialises on all societal levels: the hegemonic structural (macro) level, consisting of the society’s dominating political, financial, social, cultural, and religious leaders, educational and community institutions (meso) and the individual-agency (micro) level, hence the nation-state’s populace. Societal order is underpinned by structural, systemic, and symbolic violence, all integrated into contemporary society’s cultural and social fabric, thus inconspicuous social norms as ingrained through internalisation. The book is written from a sociological perspective and within the risk society discourse, where the risk of violence in the public domain is omnipresent. The discussions are underpinned by discourses of Arendt, Bauman, Bourdieu, Marx, Foucault, Galtung and Beck and present-day analysis. The agency and political leadership research emphatically show that violence and discrimination are normalised and ingrained in the contemporary milieu.
Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTION. 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW. 3 STRUCTURAL AND AGENCY-LEVEL VIOLENCE, HARASSMENT, AND DISCRIMINATION. 4 AGENCY-LEVEL VIOLENCE, HARASSMENT, AND DISCRIMINATION. 5 FIRST NATION PEOPLES AND PEOPLE OF COLOUR. 6 INTERCONNECTEDNESS BETWEEN STRUCTURAL AND AGENCY LEVELS’ BELIEFS AND VALUES . 7 CONCLUDING COMMENTS
Associate Professor Charlotte Fabiansson has a PhD in Sociology and is an Adjunct Fellow at Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia. She is the author of Belonging and Social Identity among Young People in Western Sydney, Australia. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 2018, 19, (2): 351-366; Pathways to Excessive Gambling. A Societal Perspective on Youth and Adult Gambling Pursuits. Ashgate Publishing Group, UK, 2010; and co-author of Food & the Risk Society. The Power of Risk Perception, Routledge, UK, 2016.