The Future of Correctional Rehabilitation: Moving Beyond the RNR Model and Good Lives Model Debate, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

The Future of Correctional Rehabilitation

Moving Beyond the RNR Model and Good Lives Model Debate, 1st Edition

By Ronen Ziv

Routledge

218 pages

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Description

In the aftermath of Martinson’s 1974 "nothing works" doctrine, scholars have made a concerted effort to develop an evidence-based corrections theory and practice to show "what works" to change offenders. Perhaps the most important contribution to this effort was made by a group of Canadian psychologists, most notably Donald Andrews, James Bonta, and Paul Gendreau, who developed a treatment paradigm called the Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model, which became the dominant theory of correctional treatment. This approach was more recently challenged by a perspective developed by Tony Ward, Shadd Maruna, and others, called the Good Lives Model (GLM). Based in part on desistance research and positive psychology, this model proposes to rehabilitate offenders by building on the strengths offenders possess. GLM proponents see the RNR model as a deficit model that fixes dynamic risk factors rather than identifying what offenders value most, and using these positive factors to pull them out of crime.

Through a detailed examination of both models’ theoretical and correctional frameworks, The Future of Correctional Rehabilitation: Moving Beyond the RNR Model and Good Lives Model Debate probes the extent to which the models offer incompatible or compatible approaches to offender treatment, and suggests how to integrate the RNR and GLM approaches to build a new and hopefully more effective vision for offender treatment. A foreword by renowned criminologist Francis T. Cullen helps put the material into context. This book will be of much interest to scholars and students studying correctional rehabilitation as well as practitioners working with offenders.

Table of Contents

CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

FOREWORD:  Francis T. Cullen

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

PART I. BEYOND NOTHING WORKS

CHAPTER 1: THE RISE AND FALL OF THE REHABILITATIVE IDEAL

The Discovery of the Rehabilitative Ideal

The Dominance of the Rehabilitative Ideal

The Decline of the Rehabilitative Ideal

Conservative and Liberal Attacks

Martinson and the Nothing Works Doctrine

Conclusion

CHAPTER 2: REAFFIRMING REHABILITATION

Narrative Reviews

Palmer’s Reanalysis

Gendreau and Ross’s Two Reviews

Meta-Analyses

Overall Effect Size

Heterogeneity in Effect Size

Two Approaches to Knowing What Works

Lipsey’s Inductive Approach

The Canadians’ Theoretical Approach

Drawing Conclusions on What Works

Conclusion

 

 

 

 

PART II. THE RISK-NEED-RESPONSIVITY MODEL

CHAPTER 3: THE THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF THE RNR MODEL

The Psychology of Criminal Conduct (PCC)

Understanding Human Behavior: The GPCSL Perspective

Bringing in Criminology to the GPCSL Perspective

Differential Association Theory

Psychodynamic Theory

Social Bond Theory

General Strain Theory (GST)

The PIC-R Perspective: Criminality in the Immediate Situation

Basic Operations of Behavior

The Directions and Magnitude of Effects on Behavior

Other General Issues Suggested by the PIC-R

PIC-R and Offender Assessment

PIC-R and Crime Prevention

Introduction to the Risk-Need-Responsivity Principles

Beyond Mainstream Criminology

Searching for Factors That Matter in Offender Rehabilitation1

Preservice Characteristics of Offenders

Characteristics of Correctional Workers

Practice Factors

Program Factors

Setting Factors

Intermediate Outcomes

Conclusion

CHAPTER 4: THE PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE CORRECTIONAL

TREATMENT: THEORY AND TECHNOLOGY

The RNR Model of Correctional Assessment and Treatment

Principle 1: Respect for the Person and the Normative Context

Principle 2: Psychological Theory

Principle 3: General Enhancement of Crime Prevention Services

Principle 4: Introduce Human Service

Principle 5: Risk

Principle 6: Need

Principle 7: General Responsivity

Principle 8: Specific Responsivity

Principle 9: Breadth (or Multimodal)

Principle 10: Strength

Principle 11: Structured Assessment

Principle 12: Professional Discretion

Principle 13: Community-Based

Principle 14: Core Correctional Staff Practice

Principle 15: Management

RNR-Based Technology of Treatment

RNR-Based Assessment Tools to Predict Criminal Behavior and Classify Offenders

The Importance of Assessment

The Level of Service-Revised (LSI-R)

RNR-Based Assessment Tools to Predict the Quality of Correctional Programs

The Development of Assessment Tools

The Ideal Capacity of Correctional Programs

The Ideal Content of Correctional Program

Conclusion

PART III. THE GOOD LIVES MODEL

CHAPTER 5: THE THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF THE GOOD

LIVES MODEL

Beyond Deficits: Building on the Positive

Humanistic Psychology

Positive Psychology

Strength-Based Approach

The General Assumptions of the Good Lives Model

Assumption 1: As human beings, "offenders share the same inclinations and

basic needs as other people and are naturally predisposed to seek certain

goals, or primary human goods"

Assumption 2: "rehabilitation is a value-laden process and involves a variety of

different types of value."

Assumption 3: correctional interventions that address both goods promotion and

risk reduction will produce better outcomes than intervention that neglect either

of these aims

Assumption 4: the process of rehabilitation requires a construction of adaptive

narrative (or personal) identity

Assumption 5: "Human beings are multifaceted beings comprised of a variety of interconnected biological, social, cultural and psychological systems, and are interdependent to a significant degree"

Assumption 6: Risk is a multifaceted and contextualized concept

Assumption 7: "A treatment plan should be explicitly constructed in a form…[that]

take into account individuals’ strengths, primary goods and relevant environments,

and specify exactly what competencies and resources are required to achieve these goods"

Assumption 8: Rehabilitative efforts that secure the offenders’ human dignity are protected and promoted by offenders’ human rights

The Etiological Assumptions of the Good Lives Model

Etiological Assumption 1: "individuals seek a number of primary goods in their offending"

Etiological Assumption 2: criminogenic needs are "internal or external obstacles that frustrate and block the acquisition of primary human goods"

Etiological Assumption 3: "there are different routes to offending, direct and

indirect"

Conclusion

CHAPTER 6: BUILDING GOOD LIVES THROUGH CORRECTIONAL

INTERVENTION

Domain 1: Program Aims and Orientation

Principle 1: "The aims of the treatment program include both risk reduction and well-being enhancement"

Domain 2: Offender Assessment

Principle 2: Treatment programs should assess the offender’s level of risk, therapeutic needs (i.e., treatment targets), and responsivity factors

Principle 3: GLM-informed assessment should identify offender’s heavily weighted primary goods

Principle 4: Correctional interventions should assess the full aspects of primary

Goods

Domain 3: Intervention Planning

Principle 5: Correctional interventions should construct individualized

intervention plans

Domain 4: Intervention Content

Principle 6: All program components/modules/assignments should "attend to goods promotion alongside risk reduction." The end product of the therapeutic process should be a future-oriented Good Lives Plan

Principle 7: Program content should "attend to the full range of primary goods"

Principle 8: Programs should promote offenders’ "social capital through attending to [their] social ecology"

Domain 5: Program Delivery

Principle 9: Therapists should "approach clients in a manner that acknowledges their status as fellow human beings, of equal intrinsic value"

Principle 10: Therapists should deliver programs with a "collaborative and transparent approach to assessment, intervention planning, and intervention

content"

Principle 11: The "intensity, content, and process of intervention [should be] individually tailored"

The Empirical Status of the GLM

Evaluations Without Any Comparison Group

Evaluations With a Comparison Group

Conclusion

PART IV. THE FUTURE OF REHABILITATION

CHAPTER 7: THE RNR-GLM DABATE

The Chronicle of the RNR-GLM Debate

The Incremental Value of the GLM’s Theoretical Framework

Controversial Issue 1: The Role of Offender Motivation in Rehabilitation

Controversial Issue 2: The Role of Values in Offender Rehabilitation

Controversial Issue 3: The Role of Needs in Offender Rehabilitation

Controversial Issue 4: The Role of Risk in Offender Rehabilitation

Controversial Issue 5: The Role of Contextual Factors in Offender Rehabilitation

Controversial Issue 6: The Role of Personality in Offender Rehabilitation

Controversial Issue 7: The Role of Human Agency in Offender Rehabilitation

The Correctional Framework of the RNR-GLM Debate

The Psychological Theories within the RNR-GLM Debate

Domain 1: The RNR-GLM Debate and the RNR’s Core Principles

The Provision of Human Service within the RNR-GLM Debate

The Adherence to the Risk Principle within the RNR-GLM Debate

The Adherence to the Need Principle within the RNR-GLM Debate

The Adherence to the General Responsivity Principle within the RNR-GLM

Debate

The Specific Responsivity Principle within the RNR-GLM Debate

Domain 2: The RNR-GLM Debate and the RNR’s Key Clinical Issue

The Breadth Principle within the RNR-GLM Debate

The Strength Principle within the RNR-GLM Debate

The Structured Assessment Principle within the RNR-GLM Debate

The Professional Discretion Principle within the RNR-GLM Debate

Domain 3: The RNR-GLM Debate and the RNR’s Organizational Principles

The Community-Based Principle within the RNR-GLM Debate

The Core Correctional Staff Practice within the RNR-GLM Debate

The Management Principle within the RNR-GLM Debate

Conclusion

CHAPTER 8: BEYOND THE RNR-GLM DEBATE: TWO FUTURES FOR OFFENDER REHABILITATION

The First Future: Independent Models

When the Theoretical Frameworks of the RNR Model and GLM Hold Opposed

View of Offender Rehabilitation

When the Correctional Frameworks of the RNR Model and GLM Hold Opposed

View of Offender Rehabilitation

The Second Future: The RNRM Integrated Model

Overarching Principles

Principle 1: Respect for the Person and the Normative Context

Principle 2: The Major Goal of Correctional Rehabilitation Is to Improve

Offenders first by Reducing Their Recidivism and, second, by Enhancing Their

Well-Being

Principle 3: Psychological Perspective and Theories

Principle 4: General Enhancement of Crime Prevention Services

Core RNRM Principles and Key Clinical Issues

Principle 5: Introduce Human Service

Principle 6: Risk

Principle 7: Need

Principle 8: General Responsivity

Principle 9: Specific Responsivity

Principle 10: Breadth (or Multimodal)

Principle 11: Offenders’ Personal Strengths

Principle 12: Structured Assessment

Principle 13: Release Process and Continuity of Care

Principle 14: Professional Discretion

Organizational Principles: Settings, Staffing, and Management

Principle 15: Community-Based

Principle 16: Core Correctional Staff Practices

Principle 17: Management

Conclusion

REFERENCES

SUBJECT INDEX

NAME INDEX

 

 

About the Author

Ronen Ziv, PhD, is a research fellow of the University of Cincinnati Corrections Institute and a teaching fellow in the Department of Social Sciences, School of Criminology, at the University of Haifa, Israel. He received his MS (2012) and PhD (2016) in criminal justice from the University of Cincinnati. Previously, he received his LLB (2005) and LLM (2006) in Law from Tel-Aviv University and worked as a criminal defense lawyer. His current research interests are in developing and testing the evidence-based approach to correctional rehabilitation, the integration of motivational theories in correctional intervention, and the capacity of correctional agencies to implement a promising correctional framework that aims to rehabilitate offenders.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SOC004000
SOCIAL SCIENCE / Criminology