This volume draws together research originally presented at the 2015 Future of Journalism conference at Cardiff University, UK. The conference theme, ‘Risks, Threats and Opportunities,’ highlighted five areas of particular concern for discussion and debate.
The first of these areas, ‘Journalism and Social Media’, explores how journalism and the role of the journalist are being redefined in the digital age of social networking, crowd-sourcing and ‘big data’, and how the influence of media like Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, and Reddit affects the gathering, reporting or consumption of news? ‘Journalists at Risk’ assesses the key issues surrounding journalists’ safety and their right to report, as news organizations and their sources are increasingly targeted in war, conflict or crisis situations. The third area, ‘Journalism Under Surveillance’, asks what freedom of the press means in a post-Snowden climate. What are the new forms of censorship confronting journalism today, and what emergent tactics will help it to speak truth to power?
‘Journalism and the Fifth Estate’ examines the traditional ideals of the fourth estate, which risk looking outdated, if not obsolete, in the modern world. How much can we rely on citizen media to produce alternative forms of news reporting, and how can we reform mainstream media institutions to make them more open, transparent and accountable to the public? The final area, ‘Journalism’s Values’, asks how journalism’s ethical principles and moral standards are evolving in relation to the democratic cultures of communities locally, regionally, nationally or internationally. What are the implications of changing priorities for the education, training and employment of tomorrow’s journalists?
Every chapter in this volume engages with a pressing issue for the future of journalism, offering an original, thought-provoking perspective intended to help facilitate further dialogue and debate. The chapters in this book were originally published in special issues of Digital Journalism, Journalism Practice, and Journalism Studies.
Foreword Bob Franklin
Introduction – The Future of Journalism: Risks, Threats and Opportunities Karin Wahl-Jorgensen, Andrew Williams, Richard Sambrook, Janet Harris, Iñaki Garcia-Blanco, Lina Dencik, Stephen Cushion, Cynthia Carter and Stuart Allan
1. The New Geography of Journalism Research: Levels and spaces Stephen D. Reese
2. Participatory Maps: Digital cartographies and the new ecology of journalism Inka Salovaara
3. Giving computers a nose for news: Exploring the limits of story detection and verification Neil Thurman, Steve Schifferes, Richard Fletcher, Nic Newman, Stephen Hunt and Aljosha Karim Schapals
4. Appropriating Social Media: The changing uses of social media among journalists across time Monika Djerf-Pierre, Marina Ghersetti and Ulrika Hedman
5. Sourcing the BBC’s live online coverage of terror attacks Daniel Bennett
6. Twitter as a flexible tool: How the job role of the journalist influences tweeting habits Lily Canter and Daniel Brookes
7. The anatomy of leaking in the age of megaleaks: New triggers, old news practices Zvi Reich and Aviv Barnoy
8. Social News = Journalism Evolution? How the integration of UGC into newswork helps and hinders the role of the journalist Lisette Johnston
9. "Twitter Just Exploded": Social media as alternative vox pop Kathleen Beckers and Raymond A. Harder
10. Who shares what with whom and why? News sharing profiles amongst Flemish news users Ike Picone, Ralf De Wolf and Sarie Robijt
11. Making sense of Twitter buzz: The cross-media construction of news stories in election time Raymond A. Harder, Steve Paulussen and Peter Van Aelst
12. Letting the Data speak: Role perceptions of data journalists in fostering democratic conversation Jan Lauren Boyles and Eric Meyer
13. Towards a New Model for Journalism Education Dan Gillmor
14. The Future of Professional Photojournalism: Perceptions of risk Adrian Hadland, Paul Lambert and David Campbell
15. Unravelling Data Journalism: A study of data journalism practice in British newsrooms Eddy Borges-Rey
16. Changes in U.S. Journalism: How do journalists think about social media? David H. Weaver and Lars Willnat
17. Are you talking to me? An analysis of journalism conversation on social media Martin J. Chorley and Glyn Mottershead
18. Political Journalists’ Interaction Networks: The German Federal Press Conference on Twitter Christian Nuernbergk
19. Journalism Under Threat: Intimidation and harassment of Swedish journalists Monica Löfgren Nilsson and Henrik Örnebring
20. Fake News: The narrative battle over the Ukrainian conflict Irina Khaldarova and Mervi Pantti
21. Gender, Risk and Journalism Janet Harris, Nick Mosdell and James Griffiths
22. Intrapreneurial Informants: An emergent role of freelance journalists Avery E. Holton
23. Mapping changes in local news Julie Firmstone
24. Mixed Messages: An investigation into the discursive construction of journalism as a practice Sally Reardon
25. The New Architecture of Communications Jean Seaton
26. Normative Expectations: Employing "communities of practice" models for assessing journalism’s normative claims Scott Eldridge II and John Steel
27. Valuable Journalism: Measuring news quality from a user’s perspective Irene Costera Meijer and Hildebrand P. Bijleveld
28. Folk Theories of Journalism: The many faces of a local newspaper Rasmus Kleis Nielsen
29. Interacting with Audiences: Journalistic role conceptions, reciprocity, and perceptions about participation Avery E. Holton, Seth C. Lewis and Mark Coddington
30. Cosmopolitan Journalists? Global journalism in the work and visions of journalists Johan Lindell and Michael Karlsson
31. Participation and the Blurring Values of Journalism Jaana Hujanen
32. Core Blighty? How journalists define themselves through metaphor: British Journalism Review 2011-2014 Martin Conboy and Minyao Tang
33. What makes a good journalist? Empathy as a central resource in journalistic work practice Antje Glück
34. Camouflaging Church as State: An exploratory study of journalism’s native advertising Raul Ferrer Conill
35. Embedded Links, Embedded Meanings: Social media commentary and news sharing as mundane media criticism Matt Carlson
36. Power to the Virtuous? Civic culture in the changing digital terrain Kristy Hess
The journal Journalism Studies was established at the turn of the new millennium by Bob Franklin. It was launched in the context of a burgeoning interest in the scholarly study of journalism and an expansive global community of journalism scholars and researchers. The ambition was to provide a forum for the critical discussion and study of journalism as a subject of intellectual inquiry but also an arena of professional practice. Previously, the study of journalism in the UK and much of Europe was a fairly marginal branch of the larger disciplines of media, communication and cultural studies; only a handful of Universities offered degree programmes in the subject. Journalism Studies has flourished and succeeded in providing the intended public space for discussion of research on key issues within the field, to the point where in 2007 a sister journal, Journalism Practice, was launched to enable an enhanced focus on practice-based issues, as well as foregrounding studies of journalism education, training and professional concerns. Both journals are among the leading ranked journals within the field and publish six issues annually, in electronic and print formats. From the outset, the publication of themed issues has been a commitment for both journals. Their purpose is first, to focus on highly significant or neglected areas of the field; second, to facilitate discussion and analysis of important and topical policy issues; and third, to offer readers an especially high quality and closely focused set of essays, analyses and discussions; or all three.
The Journalism Studies: Theory and Practice book series draws on a wide range of these themed issues from both journals and thereby extends the critical and public forum provided by them. The Editor of the journals works closely with guest editors to ensure that the books achieve relevance for readers and the highest standards of research rigour and academic excellence. The series makes a significant contribution to the field of journalism studies by inviting distinguished scholars, academics and journalism practitioners to discuss and debate the central concerns within the field. It also reaches a wider readership of scholars, students and practitioners across the social sciences, humanities and communication arts, encouraging them to engage critically with, but also to interrogate, the specialist scholarly studies of journalism which this series provides.