Science is increasingly defined by multidimensional collaborative networks. Despite the unprecedented growth of scientific collaboration around the globe – the collaborative turn – geography still matters for the cognitive enterprise. This book explores how geography conditions scientific collaboration and how collaboration affects the spatiality of science.
This book offers a complex analysis of the spatial aspects of scientific collaboration, addressing the topic at a number of levels: individual, organizational, urban, regional, national, and international. Spatial patterns of scientific collaboration are analysed along with their determinants and consequences. By combining a vast array of approaches, concepts, and methodologies, the volume offers a comprehensive theoretical framework for the geography of scientific collaboration. The examples of scientific collaboration policy discussed in the book are taken from the European Union, the United States, and China. Through a number of case studies the authors analyse the background, development and evaluation of these policies.
This book will be of interest to researchers in diverse disciplines such as regional studies, scientometrics, R&D policy, socio-economic geography and network analysis. It will also be of interest to policymakers, and to managers of research organisations.
Table of contents List of Figures Acknowledgements Introduction Chapter 1. Places and spaces of science 1.1 Science takes place 1.2 From little science spots to the global geography of science 1.2.1. The laboratory 12 1.2.2. Humanities in their place 1.2.3. The university and its campus 1.2.4. The spiky world of science 1.3. Driving forces of the geography of science 1.3.1. Science as a cause and as an effect 1.3.2. Between possibility and necessity 1.3.3. Science and policy 1.3.4. Between Cardwell’s Law and the logic of longue durée Chapter 2. Scientists working together 2.1. Before the fourth age of research 2.1.1. The age of the individual 2.1.2. Learned societies and academies 2.1.3. The republic of letters 2.1.4. The first global research project 2.1.5. The rise of international conferences and congresses 2.2. The collaborative turn 2.2.1. The anatomy of the collaborative turn 2.2.2. The roots of the collaborative turn 2.2.3. Outcomes of scientific collaboration 2.2.4. Multi-speed collaborative science 2.3. What is scientific collaboration? 2.3.1. Defining a fuzzy concept 2.3.2. Weak and strong collaboration 2.3.3. Formal and informal collaboration settings 2.4. Why do scientists collaborate? 2.4.1. Specialisation and the division of scientific labour 2.4.2. Tacticians and buddies 2.4.3. Access to facilities and resources 2.4.4. Access to knowledge and expertise 2.4.5. Growing interdisciplinarity 2.4.6. Collaboration in the shadow of publish or perish 2.5. The collaboration life-cycle and its challenges 2.5.1. Trust in collaboration 2.5.2. Initiation 2.5.3. Sustainment 2.5.4. The First Author et al. Chapter 3. Measuring scholarly collaboration in space 3.1 Collaborative data—sources and approaches 3.2 The reward triangle and research collaboration studies 3.3 Spatial scientometric measures 3.4 Methodological issues Chapter 4. Spatial patterns of scientific collaboration 4.1 Internationalisation 4.2 The global scientific network 4.3 Patterns of collaboration and research performance 4.4 The logic of centre and periphery Chapter 5. Theoretical approaches to scientific collaboration from a spatial perspective 5.1. Explaining the growth of collaboration 5.1.1. The collaborative advantage 5.1.2. The changing role of research organizations 5.1.3. Costs of collaboration 5.2. Explaining patterns of scientific collaboration 5.2.1. Spatial proximity 5.2.2. Gravity versus distance 5.2.3. Beyond spatial proximity 5.2.4. The Goldilocks principle 5.2.5. Preferential attachment 5.2.6. Disciplinary spatial bias 5.3. Explaining the impacts of scientific collaboration 5.3.1. Direct and indirect effects 5.3.2. Intersectoral knowledge flows 5.3.3. Coopetition 5.3.4. Local and global networks Chapter 6. Scientific collaboration policy 6.1. Policy through science and for science 6.2. Policy shift towards collaboration 6.3. Europe: towards the European Research Area 6.3.1. Integrating Europe 6.3.2. The world’s largest collaborative programme 6.3.3. Connecting Europe with third countries 6.3.4. From national interests to European added value 6.4. The United States: collaborative culture 6.4.1. Multitudes of science policies in the US 6.4.2. Scientific collaboration in collaborative culture 6.4.3. Scientific collaboration and industrial R&D policies 6.4.4. Academic mobility in a mobile society 6.4.5. International focus 6.5 China: (r)evolution in science policy 6.5.1. Collaboration in uncollaborative settings 6.5.2. Reshaping institutions for collaboration 6.5.3. China goes global 6.5.4. From brain drain to brain circulation 6.6. Tools for scientific collaboration policy 6.6.1. Science diplomacy 6.6.2. Infrastructure for collaboration 6.6.3. Collaborative projects and programmes 6.6.4. R&D network management 6.6.5. Mobility programmes 6.6.6. The collaborative regulatory environment 6.6.7. Research evaluation criteria Chapter 7. Conclusions 7.1 Research collaboration and the geography of science 7.2 Future geographies of scientific collaboration 7.3 Towards smart policies for scientific collaboration