Offering an in-depth analysis of the impact of the economic crisis (2008–2012) on immigration movements and policies in the U.S. and Europe, the analysis in this book is guided by two key questions: What is the scope of change?; and did the crisis motivate this change or did other factors do so?
The contributions to the book find that the crisis had immediate effects on migration patterns – migrants left crisis-stricken countries, naturalised in non-crisis countries where they had previously settled, or stopped migrating to formerly attractive countries which had been negatively affected by the crisis. Whereas prior to the crisis the majority of migrants were highly-skilled, during the crisis there was a shift to vulnerable groups such as low-skilled workers and women.
The book also finds that migration policies have indeed changed in times of crisis. However, these changes are neither exclusively restrictions nor liberalisations, but encompass changes in both directions. Despite the coincidence of many policy changes with the crisis, these changes are not primarily induced by the crisis. Instead, politicians rhetorically used the crisis to promote both liberal and restrictive policy changes which were already in the making before the crisis. This book was originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies.
Introduction: The global economic crisis as a critical juncture? The crisis’s impact on migration movements and policies in Europe and the U.S. Christof Roos and Natascha Zaun
1. Circumventing deadlock through venue-shopping: why there is more than just talk in US immigration politics in times of economic crisis Natascha Zaun, Christof Roos and Fabian Gülzau
2. The crisis as an opportunity for change? High-skilled immigration policies across Europe Lucie Cerna
3. Negotiating varieties of capitalism? Crisis and change in contemporary British and German labour migration policies Regine Paul
4. Migration policy reforms in the context of economic and political crises: the case of Belgium Sonia Gsir, Jean-Michel Lafleur and Mikolaj Stanek
5. Citizenship in the shadow of the Euro crisis: explaining changing patterns in naturalisation among intra-EU migrants John Graeber
6. Mobilities in the crisis and post-crisis times: migration strategies of Poles on the EU labour market Anna Janicka and Paweł Kaczmarczyk
7. The economic crisis as a driver of cross-border labour mobility? A multi-method perspective on the case of the Central European Region Laura Wiesböck, Roland Verwiebe, Christoph Reinprecht and Raimund Haindorfer