1st Edition

The Handbook of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Kinetics, Bioengineering, and Industrial Aspects

Edited By Martin Koller Copyright 2021
    514 Pages 66 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    514 Pages 66 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    This second volume of the "Handbook of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA): Kinetics, Bioengineering and Industrial Aspects" focusses on thermodynamic and mathematical considerations of PHA biosynthesis, bioengineering aspects regarding bioreactor design and downstream processing for PHA recovery from microbial biomass. It covers microbial mixed culture processes and includes a strong industry-focused section with chapters on the economics of PHA production, industrial-scale PHA production from sucrose, next generation industrial biotechnology approaches for PHA production based on novel robust production strains, and holistic techno-economic and sustainability considerations on PHA manufacturing. Aimed at professionals and graduate students in Polymer (plastic) industry, wastewater treatment plants, food industry, biodiesel industry, this book

    Provides an insight into microbial thermodynamics to reveal the central domain governing in PHA formation, both aerobically and anaerobically.

    Includes systematic overview of mathematical modelling approaches, starting from low-structured and formal kinetic models until modern tools like metabolic models, cybernetic models and so forth

    Discusses challenges during scale up of PHA production processes and on development of non-sterile processes and contamination-resistant strains

    Presents a holistic picture of the current state of PHA research by mixed cultures

    Reviews the industry-related point of view about current and future trends in PHA production and processing

    Chapter 1: An Introduction to the Thermodynamics Calculation of PHA Production in Microbes
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Introduction to Thermodynamics and its Application to PHA Synthesis
    1.3 PHA Synthesis Under Aerobic Conditions
    1.4 PHA Synthesis under Anaerobic Conditions
    1.5 Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling for Advanced PHA Biosynthesis
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Kinetics of PHA Biosynthesis
    2.3 Mathematical Modelling of PHA Biosynthesis
    2.4 Metabolic Pathway and Flux Analysis Methods in Modelling of PHA Biosynthesis
    2.5 Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 3: Interconnection between PHA and Stress Robustness of Bacteria
    3.1 Importance of Stress Robustness for Bacteria
    3.2 PHA and stress induced by high temperature
    3.3 Protective Functions of PHA Against Low Temperature and Freezing
    3.4 Osmoprotective Function of PHA Granules
    3.5 Protective Function of PHA Against Radiation
    3.6 Oxidative Stress and PHA
    3.7 Stress Induced by Heavy Metals and other Xenobiotics and PHA Metabolism
    3.8 Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 4: Linking Salinity to Microbial Biopolyesters Biosynthesis: Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production by Haloarchaea and Halophilic Eubacteria
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Halophilic microbes producing PHA
    4.3 PHA production by Halophilic Archaea (“Haloarchaea”)
    4.4 Gram-Negative Halophilic Eubacteria as PHA Producers
    4.5 Gram-positive halophilic PHA producers
    4.6 Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 5: Role of Different Bioreactor Types and Feeding Regimes in Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Process Optimization for PHA Production
    5.3 Reactor Operating Strategies for PHA Production
    5.4 Nutrient Feeding Regimes for PHA Production
    5.5 Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 6: Recovery of Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Microbial Biomass
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 PHA Recovery Methods
    6.3 Mechanical Methods
    6.4 Biological Recovery Methods
    6.5 Physical Purification Methods
    6.6 Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 7: Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Mixed Microbial Cultures: The Journey so Far and Challenges Ahead
    7.1 The Journey so Far
    7.2 Definition of MMCs
    7.3  A Little Bit of History
    7.4  What Do We Know about PHA by MMCs?
    7.5  Presently Accepted Strategies
    7.6. Microorganisms and Metabolism
    7.7. Challenges Ahead
    7.8. Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 8: PHA Production by Microbial Mixed Cultures and Organic Waste of Urban Origin: Pilot Scale Evidences
    8.1. Introduction
    8.2. MMC-PHA Production in the Urban Biorefinery Model
    8.3. Pilot Scale Studies for Urban Waste Conversion into PHA
    8.4 Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 9: Production Quality Control of Mixed Culture Poly(3-Hydroxbutyrate-co-3-Hydroxyvalerate) Blends Using Full-Scale Municipal Activated Sludge and Non-Chlorinated Solvent Extraction
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Materials and methods
    9.3 Results and Discussion
    9.4 Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 10: Economics and Industrial Aspects of PHA Production
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 A Brief History of PHA
    10.3 Physical Properties
    10.4 Cost and Economics

    Chapter 11: Next Generation Industrial Biotechnology (NGIB) for PHA Production
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2. Chassis for NGIB
    11.3. Production of PHA by Halophiles
    11.4. Genetic Tools for Halophile Engineering
    11.5. Engineering Halomonas spp. for PHA production
    11.6. Morphology Engineering for Easy Separation
    11.7. Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 12: PHA Biosynthesis Starting from Sucrose and Materials from Sugar Industry
    12.1.  Introduction of Sucrose for PHA production
    12.2. Use of Molasses for PHA Production
    12.3.  Bacterial strains for PHA production from sucrose
    12.4.  Setting up a biorefinery to produce PHA in Brazil
    12.5.  A new Biorefinery for PHA Production in Brazil
    12.6.  Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 13: LCA, Sustainability and Techno-economic Studies for PHA Production
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Economic Analysis
    13.3 Sustainability of PHA Production
    13.4. Conclusions and Outlook


    Martin Koller was awarded his PhD degree by Graz University of Technology, Austria, for his thesis on polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from dairy surplus streams which was enabled by the EU-project WHEYPOL (“Dairy industry waste as source for sustainable polymeric material production”), supervised by Gerhart Braunegg, one of the most eminent PHA pioneers. As senior researcher, he worked on bio-mediated PHA production, encompassing development of continuous and discontinuous fermentation processes, and novel downstream processing techniques for sustainable PHA recovery. His research focused on cost-efficient PHA production from surplus materials by bacteria and haloarchaea and, to a minor extent, to the development for PHA for biomedical use. He currently holds more than 70 Web-of-science listed articles in high ranked scientific journals (h-index 23), authored twelve chapters in scientific books, edited three scientific books and four journal special issues on PHA, gave plenty of invited and plenary lectures at scientific conferences, and supports the editorial teams of several distinguished journals. Moreover, Martin Koller coordinated the EU-FP7 project ANIMPOL (“Biotechnological conversion of carbon containing wastes for eco-efficient production of high added value products”), which, in close cooperation between academia and industry, investigated the conversion of animal processing industry´s waste streams towards structurally diversified PHA and follow-up products. In addition to PHA exploration, he was also active in microalgal research and in biotechnological production of various marketable compounds from renewables by yeasts, chlorophyte, bacteria, archaea, fungi or lactobacilli. At the moment, Martin Koller is active as research manager and external supervisor for PHA-related projects.