1st Edition

The Handbook of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Postsynthetic Treatment, Processing and Application

Edited By Martin Koller Copyright 2021
    410 Pages 99 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    410 Pages 99 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    The third volume of the Handbook of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) focusses on the production of functionalized PHA bio-polyesters, the post-synthetic modification of PHA, processing and additive manufacturing of PHA, development and properties of PHA-based (bio)composites and blends, the market potential of PHA and follow-up materials, different bulk- and niche applications of PHA, and the fate and use of spent PHA items. Divided into fourteen chapters, it describes functionalized PHA and PHA modification, processing and their application including degradation of spent PHA-based products and fate of these bio-polyesters during compositing and other disposal strategies. Aimed at graduate students and professionals in Polymer science, chemical engineering and bioprocessing, it:

    Covers current state of the art in the development of chemically modifiable PHA including mult-istep modifications of isolated biopolyesters, short syntheses of monomer feedstocks and so forth.

    Describes design of functionalized PHA-based polymeric materials by chemical modification .

    Illustrates preparation of bioactive oligomers derived from microbial PHA and synthetic analogues of natural PHA oligomers.

    Discusses processing and thermomechanical properties of PHA.

    Reviews advantages of PHA against other bio-based and conventional polymers with current applications and potential uses of PHA-based polymers highlighting innovative products.

    Chapter 1: Recent Advances in Chemically Modifiable Polyhydroxyalkanoates
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Fluorination of the PHA α-Carbon; a Biosynthetic Approach
    1.3 Development of Azido-PHA
    1.4 Chemical Modifications of Unsaturated PHA
    1.5 Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 2: The Design of Functionalized PHA-Based Polymeric Materials by Chemical Modifications
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Chemical modifications in homogeneous conditions
    2.3 Synthesis of copolymers
    2.4 Networks based on PHA
    2.5 Modification of PHA Surface
    2.6 Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 3: Amphiphiles from Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates)
    3.1 Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHA)
    3.2 Amphiphilic Polymers, General Introduction
    3.3 Amphiphilic PHA via Chemical Modification Reactions
    3.4 Amphiphilic PHA
    3.5 Epoxidation
    3.6 The Polycationic PHA
    3.7 PHOU with Pendant PEG Units
    3.8 Click Reactions
    3.9 Saturated PHA with Hydrophilic Groups
    3.10 Polyesterification of PHB-Diol and PEG-Diacid
    3.11 Stimuli Responsive PHA Graft Copolymers
    3.12 Enhanced Hydrophilicity via Radical Formation onto Saturated PHA
    3.13 PEG Grafting onto Saturated mcl-PHA
    3.14 Ozonization of PHB and PHBV
    3.15 Chlorination of PHA
    3.16 PHB Graft Copolymers with Natural Hydrophilic Biopolymers
    3.17 Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 4: Bioactive and Functional Oligomers derived from Natural PHA and their Synthetic Analogues
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Oligomers Derived from Natural Storage
    4.3 Oligomers of Synthetic Analogues of Natural PHA
    4.4 Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 5: Processing and Thermomechanical Properties of PHA
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Physical Properties
    5.3 PHA Processing Methods
    5.4 PHA Rheology
    5.5 Additives for PHA Processing
    5.6. Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 6: Additive Manufacturing of PHA
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Processing Properties of PHA
    6.3 Additive Manufacturing (AM) of PHA
    6.4 Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 7: Mechanical and Permeation Properties of PHA-Based Blends and Composites
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Properties of PHA Films
    7.3 Additives
    7.4 Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 8: Competitive Advantage and Market Introduction of PHA Polymers and Potential Use of PHA Monomers
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Polyhydroxyalkanoates and their Properties
    8.3 Certifications and Labelling of PHA
    8.4 Market Introduction and Applications of PHA
    8.5 PHA Monomers as Bulk Chemicals
    8.6 End-of-Life Options
    8.7 Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 9: Linking the Properties of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) to Current and Prospective Applications
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 PHA Properties
    9.3 Current PHA Applications
    9.4 Prospective applications
    9.5 Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 10: Hydrogen-Oxydizing Producers of Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 PHA Synthesis from Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Substrates
    10.3 Synthesis of PHA of Different Composition
    10.4 PHA Properties
    10.5 PHA Applications
    10.6 Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 11: Polyhydroxyalkanoates, their Processing and Biomedical Applications
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Processing of PHA for Medical Applications
    11.3 Applications of PHA in Nerve Tissue Engineering
    11.4 Bone Tissue Engineering
    11.5 Cartilage Tissue Engineering
    11.6 Drug Delivery Application
    11.7 Cardiac Tissue Engineering
    11.8 Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 12: Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) Based Materials in Food Packaging Applications. State of the Art and Future Perspectives
    12.1 Brief Introduction on PHA´s Structural Features and Production
    12.2 Biodegradability of Polyhydroxyalkanoates
    12.3 Future Perspective of PHA in Food Packaging: Within the Circular Economy Expectations
    12.4 Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 13: Aerobic and Anaerobic Degradation Pathways of PHA
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Plastic Waste
    13.3 Bioplastics
    13.4 Biodegradation of PHA
    13.5 Biodegradation of PHA Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions
    13.6 Conclusions and Outlook

    Chapter 14: Factors Controlling Lifetimes of Polyhydroxyalkanoates and their Composites in the Natural Environment
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Overview of Biopolymer Degradation
    14.3 Biologically Driven Biopolymer Degradation
    14.4 PHA biodegradation in natural environments
    14.5 Biodegradation of PHA-Based Blends
    14.6 Biodegradation of PHA-Based Composites
    14.7 UV Degradation
    14.9 Mechanical Degradation
    14.10 Strategies for Modification of Degradation Rate
    14.11 Accelerated Aging for Lifetime Estimation
    14.12 Conclusions and Outlook



    Martin Koller was awarded his PhD degree by Graz University of Technology, Austria, for his thesis on polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from dairy surplus streams which was enabled by the EU-project WHEYPOL (“Dairy industry waste as source for sustainable polymeric material production”), supervised by Gerhart Braunegg, one of the most eminent PHA pioneers. As senior researcher, he worked on bio-mediated PHA production, encompassing development of continuous and discontinuous fermentation processes, and novel downstream processing techniques for sustainable PHA recovery. His research focused on cost-efficient PHA production from surplus materials by bacteria and haloarchaea and, to a minor extent, to the development for PHA for biomedical use. He currently holds more than 70 Web-of-science listed articles in high ranked scientific journals (h-index 23), authored twelve chapters in scientific books, edited three scientific books and four journal special issues on PHA, gave plenty of invited and plenary lectures at scientific conferences, and supports the editorial teams of several distinguished journals. Moreover, Martin Koller coordinated the EU-FP7 project ANIMPOL (“Biotechnological conversion of carbon containing wastes for eco-efficient production of high added value products”), which, in close cooperation between academia and industry, investigated the conversion of animal processing industry´s waste streams towards structurally diversified PHA and follow-up products. In addition to PHA exploration, he was also active in microalgal research and in biotechnological production of various marketable compounds from renewables by yeasts, chlorophyte, bacteria, archaea, fungi or lactobacilli. At the moment, Martin Koller is active as research manager and external supervisor for PHA-related projects.