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The Handbook of Surface Imaging and Visualization



ISBN 9780849389115
Published August 31, 1995 by CRC Press
942 Pages

 
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Book Description

This exciting new handbook investigates the characterization of surfaces. It emphasizes experimental techniques for imaging of solid surfaces and theoretical strategies for visualization of surfaces, areas in which rapid progress is currently being made. This comprehensive, unique volume is the ideal reference for researchers needing quick access to the latest developments in the field and an excellent introduction to students who want to acquaint themselves with the behavior of electrons, atoms, molecules, and thin-films at surfaces. It's all here, under one cover!
The Handbook of Surface Imaging and Visualization is filled with sixty-four of the most powerful techniques for characterization of surfaces and interfaces in the material sciences, medicine, biology, geology, chemistry, and physics. Each discussion is easy to understand, succinct, yet incredibly informative. Data illustrate present research in each area of study. A wide variety of the latest experimental and theoretical approaches are included with both practical and fundamental objectives in mind. Key references are included for the reader's convenience for locating the most recent and useful work on each topic. Readers are encouraged to contact the authors or consult the references for additional information.
This is the best ready reference available today. It is a perfect source book or supplemental text on the subject.

Table of Contents

ANGLE RESOLVED AUGER ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY, D.G. Frank
Introduction
Auger Electron Emission from Solid Surfaces
The Auger Phenomenon
Angle-Resolved Auger Electron Measurements
Experimental Considerations
Auger Electron KE and the "Secant Effect"
Incident Radiation
Angle-Resolving Analyzers
Auger Signal Detection
Data Visualization
Theoretical Approaches
Basic Principles
Empirical Trends
Empirical Blocking Model
Inelastic Scattering
Elastic Scattering
Example Applications
Depth Profiling
Monolayer Structure
Bilayer Structure
Single Crystals
Layered Crystals
Acknowledgements
References
Atomic Force Microscopy, A.A. Gewirth and J.R. LaGraff
Introduction
General Principles
AFM Operation
Tip-Sample Interaction
Representative Results
Electrochemistry
Biological Systems
Self-Assembled Langmuir-Blodgett Films
Crystal Dissolution and Growth
Future Prospects
Acknowledgement
References
Auger Electron Spectroscopy, N.H. Turner
Introduction
Basics
Elemental Identification
Surface Sensitivity
Overview of Spectral Features
Instrumentation
Vacuum Systems
Electron Sources
Energy Analyzers
Other Accessories
Spectral Features
Main Spectral Features
Charging
Quantification
Summary
References
Chemical Imaging Using Ion Microscopy, I. Gay and G.H. Morrison
Introduction
Instrumentation
Detection and Image Acquisition Systems
Quantification
Applications of Ion Microscopy
Materials Science and Geology
Biology and Medicine
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
Collision Induced Surface Processes, S.T. Ceyer
Introduction
Examples of Collision Induced Surface Processes
Translational Activation
Collision Induced Activation
Collision Induced Desorption
Collision Induced Absorption
Collision Induced Recombinative Desorption
Signficance of Collision Induced Surface Processes
References
Depth Profiling, G.B. Hoflund
Introduction
The Ion Sputtering Process
Pure Materials
Multicomponent Solids
References
Electrochemical Epitaxy, H.M. Baoming, T.E. Lister, and J.L. Stickney
Introduction
Experimental
Electrochemical Atomic Layer Epitaxy
Acknowledgements
References
Electrochemical Nucleation, R. de Levie
The Energetics of Nucleation
The Thermodynamics of Nucleated Monolayer Films
The Kinetics of Nucleation
Growth
Overlap
Experimental Observations
Metal Deposition
The Formation of Salt Layers
Condensation of Adsorbate Films
Relevance for Studies at the Metal-Vacuum Interface
General References
Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Studies of Electroactive Surface Films, S. Bruckenstein and R. Hillman
Principles of the Quartz Crystal Microbalance
In situ Application: The Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance
Chemical Principles
Chemical Systems
Polymer Films
Metal Oxide Films
Other Systems
Future Prospects
Absolute Measurement of Solvent Content
Crystal Impedance Modeling
Surface Morphology
Summary
References
Electron Beam Lithography, F.J. Hohn
Introduction
Classes of Electron Beam Lithography Tools
Gaussian Round Beam Systems
Variable Shape Beam Systems
Performance Limitations
Resolution
Accuracy
Electron Beam Lithography-Integration Considerations
Proximity Effect
Electron Beam Lithography Applications
Application Emphasis
Application for Nano-Devices
Summary
References
Electron Microscopy, J.M. Cowley
Introduction
The Scattering of High Energy Electrons by Matter
Instruments for Electron Microscopy
Use of Electron Microscopes for Surface Studies
Transmission Electron Microscopy
Plan-View Diffraction and Imaging
Profile Imaging
Transmission Electron Holography
Reflection Electron Microscopy (REM)
RHEED and REM
Contrast and Resolution in REM
Scanning Reflection Electron Microscopy
Reflection Electron Energy-Loss Analysis
Reflection Electron Holography
Imaging with Secondary Radiation
Secondary Electron Microscopy
Scanning Auger Microscopy
X-Ray Emission
Special Topics
UHV Instruments
Very Low Voltage Electron Holography
Conclusions
References
Electron Stimulated Desorption-Ion Angular Distribution (ESDIAD), J.T. Yates, Jr.
Introduction
The ESDIAD Phenomenon
The ESDIAD Measurement Technique
Selected Examples of ESDIAD Measurements on Metal and Semiconductor Surfaces
Chemisorption on a Metal Surface
Chemisorption on a Semiconductor Surface
Future Directions
Acknowledgements
References
Field Emission Ion Sources for Focused Ion Beams, J. Orloff
Introduction
Field Emission Process
Field Ionization
Field Evaporation
Liquid Metal Ion Sources
Properties of Field Emission Ion Sources
Gas Phase Field Ionization Sources
Liquid Metal Ion Sources
Implications for Focused Ion Beam Formation
References
Field Emission Microscopy, J.J. Hren and J. Liu
Surface Electron Microscopies
Field Electron Emission
Field Emission Microscopy
Field Emission from Crystals
The Theoretical Resolution of FEM
Practical FEM
The FEM of Absorbed Molecules
Combining Field Emission and Field Ion Microscopy
References
Field-Ion Microscopy and Spectroscopy, G. Ehrlich and N. Ernst
Historical Introduction
The Field Ion Microscope
Selected Applications
FIM Variants
The Atom Probe
Field Ion Appearance Energy Spectroscopy
Summary
Acknowledgements
References
Fluid-Fluid Interfaces: Optical Imaging of Capillary Systems, A.D. Nikolov and D.T. Wasan
Introduction
Imaging a Profile of a Fluid by Light Interference Phenomena
Reflection Interferometry
Differential Interferometry
Film Thickness Interferometry
Imaging the Film Structure by Using Diffractive Scattering Phenomena
Imaging Film Structure by Small Angle Diffraction
Imaging Film Structure by Background Light Scattering Diffraction
Imaging Film Structure by Light Scattering
Acknowledgements
References
Fullerenes Viewed by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Photoemission, and Inverse Photoemission, J.H. Weaver
Introduction
STM of Fullerene Films
Electron Spectroscopy of Fullerenes
C60 Valence and Conduction Bands
C84 and Graphite Valence Bands
C 1s Satellites and Plasmons for C60, C84, and Graphite
Summary
Acknowledgements
References
High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy, L.L. Kesmodel
Introduction
Experimental Apparatus
Theory
Dipole Scattering
Impact Scattering
Resonance Scattering
Examples
Applications
Supported Catalysts (Metal Clusters)
Characterization of Insulators for Silicon Technology
Polar Materials: Oxides
Polymer Surfaces
References
Imaging of Colliodal Particles, E. Matijevic
Introduction
Preparation of Uniform Colloids
Spherical Colloidal Particles
Coated and Hollow Particles
Colloidal Particles of Other Shapes
References
Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection Spectroscopy of Surface Active Species, R.P. Sperline and H. Freiser
Introduction
Overview
Research Objectives
Spectra of Adsorbates on Coated Optics
Adsorbate Orientation Studies Using Coated Optics
Advantages and Feasibility of ATR
Literature Applications of ATR
Self-Assembled Mono-/Bi-Layers
Experimental Approach
Spectra of the Surfactants Themselves
Probes Molecules for Film Structure
Materials and Equipment
Infrared Spectroscopy of Surfaces, J. Benziger
Introduction
Principles of Infrared Absorption
Types of Spectrometers
Transmission Spectroscopy
Metal Oxides
Supported Metals
Reflection Spectroscopy
External Reflection
Surface Kinetics
Internal Reflection
Other Techniques
Diffuse Reflectance
Photoacoustic and Photothermal Deflection
Emission Spectroscopy
Summary of Surface Infrared Techniques
References
Langmuir--Blodgett Films, A. Ullman
Introduction
LB Films of Long-Chain Fatty Acids
LB Films of Liquid-Crystalline Amphiphiles
LB Films of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines
LB Films of Polymerizable Amphiphiles
LB Films of Polymeric Amphiphiles
Potential Applications of LB Films
References
LEED Pattern Directory, D.G. Frank
Introduction and Theory
Introduction
Experimental
Basic Principles
Surface Dimensions from LEED Patterns
References
Hexagonal Surface Tabulations
Table of All Unit-Cells
Table of Primitive Unit-Cells
Table of Structures and LEED Patterns
Low-Energy Electron Diffraction: Some Basic Conceptual Tools, P.A. Thiel
Introduction
Definition of k and s
The Bragg Condition for a One-Dimensional Periodic Lattice
The Laué Condition for a One-Dimensional Periodic Lattice
Reciprocal Space Vectors
The Ewald Construction
The Typical LEED Experiment
Diffraction Profile as a Function of Island Size
Diffraction Profile in Terms of the Pair Correlation Function
Acknowledgements
References
Low-Energy Electron Microscopy, E. Bauer
Clean Surfaces: Morphology, Phase Transitions, Growth, Sublimation
Absorption, Segregation, Reactions
Thin Films: Growth, Structural Transitions, and The Interaction of Slow Electrons with Matter
Low-Energy Electron Microscopes
Resolution and Contrast
Applications
Desorption
Magnetic Microstructure
Outlook
References
Low Energy Ion Scattering Spectroscopy, S.H. Overbury
Introduction
Techniques
Fundamental Concepts in Ion Scattering
Application to Surface Imaging and Visualization
Acknowledgement
References
Magnetism in Low Dimensional Systems: Magnetic Properties of Thin Films, R. Wu, D. Wang, and A.J. Freeman
Summary
Introduction
Magnetic Moment Enhancement in Low-Dimensional Systems
Transition Metals
Rare Earth Metal Surface: Gd(0001)
Interfacial Effects
3d Overlayers on Inert Substrates
3d Overlayers on Transition Metal Substrates
Possibility to Realize 4d Magnetism
Fermi-Contact Hyperfine Field
Spin Density at the Fermi Level
Magneto-Crystalline Anisotropy
Magneto-Optical Effects
Smoke
Magneitc Circular X-Ray Dichroism
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References
Metal Clusters on Oxides, X. Xu and D.W. Goodman
Introduction
Preparation of Metal Clusters on an Oxide Support
Metal Cluster Properties
Cohesive Energy
Size
Structure
Catalytic Activity
Cluster-Oxide Interactions
Conclusion
Acknowledgement
References
Metal Surface Reconstructions, P.A. Thiel and P.J. Estrup
Introduction
Structural Features of Known Reconstructions
Clean Surface Transformations
Adsorbate-Induced Transformations
Driving Force
General Remarks
Clean Surface Transformations
Adsorbate or Field-Induced Transformations
Mechanism
General Rules
CO on Pt(100)
Oxygen-Induced Added-Row Reconstructions
Phase Formation on W(100) and Mo(100)
Summary
Acknowledgements
References
Molecular Beam Epitaxy, C.W. Tu
Introduction
In situ Monitoring and Control
RHEED
Reflection and Desorption Mass Spectroscopy
Pyrometric Interferometry
Gas Sources
Growth Behavior
Alternative Sources
Carbon-Doped p-Type GaAs and InGaAs by Halomethanes
Concluding Remarks
Acknowledgements
References
Molecular Beam Scattering: Diffraction, T. Engel
Advantages and Limits of the Utility of Atomic and Molecular Beam Diffraction
Experimental Aspects
Using Atom Diffraction to Obtain Atomic Structure within the Unit Cell
Atom Diffraction as a Probe of Surface Defects
Atom Diffraction as a Probe of Surface Phase Transitions: The Roughing Transition
Atom Diffraction as a Probe of Heteroepitaxial Growth: Metals on Metals
A Broader Framework and Outlook for the Future
References
Molecular Beam Scattering: Reactive Scattering, S.L. Bernasek
Introduction to the Technique
Experimental Aspects
Kinetic/Mechanistic Studies
Dynamic Studies
Conclusions and Prospects for the Future
References
Molecular Orbital Theory of Surfaces, A.B. Anderson
Introduction
How Surface Structures Are Calculated Using Molecular Orbital Theory
How Molecular Orbital Calculations Relate to Ionization, Optical, and Vibrational Spectroscopic Data
Surface Models for Molecular Orbital Calculations
Methods of Molecular Orbital Calculations
Concluding Comment
Acknowledgements
References
Molecular Orientation, M.P. Soriaga and R.J. Barriga
Introduction
Determination of Adsorbate Molecular Orientation
Determination Based upon a Comparison of Measured and Calculated Molecular Cross Sections
Determinations Based upon Surface Spectroscopy
Nature of Adsorbate Molecular Orientations
Reversible Adsorption: Adsorption Isotherms
Irreversible Adsorption: Surface Chemical Bonding
Acknowledgements
References
Monitoring Surface Chemistry with Optical Second Harmonic Generation, R.M. Corn and D.A. Higgins
Introduction
Experimental Considerations
Examples of SHG Surface Studies
Adsorption and Surface Coverage Measurements
Molecular Orientation Measurements
Surface Symmetry Measurements
Electric Field Measurements
Time Resolved Studies
Future Directions
Acknowledgements
References
Monolayer Surface Structures, G.A. Somorjai and J.D. Batteas
The Importance of Monolayer Surface Structures
Techniques for the Determination of Monolayer Structures
Low Energy Electron Diffraction
Photon Scattering and Diffraction
Scattering and Diffraction of Atoms and Ions
Scanning Probe Microscopies
Clean Surfaces, Relaxations, and Reconstructions
Atomic Adsorption on Metals
Molecular Overlayers on Metals
The Co-adsorption Phenomena
The Nature of Surface Chemical Bonding
An Outlook
Appendix I: Surface Structure Notation
References
Mössbauer Effect Spectroscopy, D.A. Scherson
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, J.F. HawBrief Description of the Method: Advantages and Limitations
Experimental Aspects
MES as a Probe of a Passive Film
MES as a Probe of an Electrochromic Film
MES as a Probe of an Electrocatalytic Mixed Metal Hydrous Oxide Film
References
Introduction
Spin Counting
Relaxation Time Measurements
Chemical Shift Spectroscopy
Broad Line Studies
Pulsed Field Gradient Measurements of Diffusion
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
In Situ NMR of Reactions on Surfaces
Future Prospects
Concluding Remarks
References
Optical Holographic Imaging, E.N. Leith
Introduction
Theory
Gabor Hologram
Off-Axis Method
Phase Conjugation
Complex Spatial Filtering
Holographic Interferometry
Holographic Optical Elements
Display Holography
Introduction
Volume Hologram
Rainbow Hologram
Integral Hologram
Concluding Comments
References
Optical Imaging of Particles, B.J. Thompson
Introduction
Incoherent Imaging
Image Space Parameters
Object Space Parameters
System with Constant Magnifications
Coherent Imaging
Holographic Imaging
Hologram of a Single Particle
Image Formation from the Hologram
System Design Considerations
Other Methods using Holography
Conclusions
References
Optically Detected Electron Spin Resonance of Aromatic Ketones Adsorbed on Surfaces, A.M. Nishimura
Introduction
Experimental
Results and Discussion: Al2O3; Ag; and Molecular Crystals
References
Organic Molecular Beam Epitaxy, N.R. Armstrong
General Description of the OMBE Process
Experimental Aspects
Epitaxial Layer Growth of Large Organic Molecules-The First Monolayer
Epitaxial Layer Frowth of Large Organic Molecules-Multilayer Formation
Prospects for the Future of OMBE
References
Photoelectron Emission Microscopy, M.E. Kordesch
Introduction
Classification
Characteristics/Requirements
Areas of Application
Microscope Function
Principles of Operation
Image Composition
Microscopes
Early Microscopes
Integrated Surface Science Microscopes
Synchrotron Radiation Microscopes
Applications
In Situ Surface Chemistry
Materials Analysis
Related Techniques
Acknowledgements
References and Bibliography
Picosecond Luminescence Studies of Recombination Dynamics at GaAs/Electrolyte Interfaces, G.L. Richmond, J.F. Kauffman, and B.A. Balko
Introduction
Analysis of Photoluminescence Data
Modelling Potential Dependent Photoluminescence Using the Dead Layer
Modelling Photoluminescence Decays
Experimental Considerations
Results and Discussion
Potential Dependent Studies of Photoluminescence Intensity
Photoluminescence Decay Measurements
Luminescence Decays as a Function of Applied Potential
Photocorrosion Studies
Summary
Acknowledgements
References
Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy, A. Weiss
Introduction
The PAES Mechanism
PAES Apparatus
Secondary Electron Background Elimination
Surface Sensitivity
Theoretical Calculations
PAES Intensities
Measurement of the Temperature Dependence of PAES
Applications of PAES
Studies of Metal Overlayers
Pd Films on Cu(100)
RH on Ag
Au on Si
Some Complications
Future PAES Research
Background Free Line Shape Measurements
Polarized Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy Spin Polarized Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Spectroscopy
PAES Microprobe
Acknowledgements
References
Radiotracer Study of Electrode Surfaces, M. Gamboa-Aldeco, K. Franaszszuk, and A. Wieckowski
General Description of the Method
Principles of Operation Radiochemical-Electrochemical Cell Designs
Thin-Foil (Film) Method
Thin-Gap Method
Evaluation of Experimental Error
Applications and Illustrations of the Method
Acknowledgements
References
Raman Spectroscopy of Surfaces, J.E. Pemberton
Introduction
Fundamentals of Raman Spectroscopy
Instrumental Considerations
A Brief History of surface Raman Spectroscopy
Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering(SERS)
Normal Raman Surface Scattering
Integrated Optical Waveguide Raman Spectroscopy
Total Internal Reflection Spectroscopy
Resonance Raman Spectroscopy
Plasmon Surface Polariton Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
Surface Selection Rules
Selected Examples of Raman Scattering on Metal Surfaces
Surface Raman Scattering in Electrochemical Systems
Self-Assembled Monolayers
The Future of Surface Raman Spectroscopy
Acknowledgements
References
Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy, A.J. Bard, F.-R.F. Fan, and M.V. Mirkin
Introduction
Instrumentation
Basic Apparatus
Tip Preparation
Theory of the SECM
Applications
SECM Images
Studies of Heterogeneous Kinetics at Substrate and Tip Surfaces
Probing Interfacial Films
Potentiometric Probes
References
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy of Electrode Surfaces in Situ, K. Itaya
Electrochemical Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Well-Defined Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces
Metal Electrodes
Semiconductor Electrodes
Conclusions
References
Scanning X-Ray Photoelectron Microscopy (SXPEM), G.A. Garwood, Jr.
Introduction and Overview
Purpose of Chapter
SXPEM in Context
Scope of Chapter
Instruction in SXPEM
Tutorial on Technique
Instrumental Aspects
Potpourri of Applications
Inside the Literature
General Guide
Specific References
Landmarks and Milestones
Instruments and Applications
Scan Analyzer
X-Ray Microprobe
Parallel-Direct
Other Approaches
Imminent Prospects
Innovations and Improvements
Integration and Synergism
Acknowledgements
References
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, J.A. Gardella, Jr.
Overview of the SIMS Experiments
Information Sought from SIMS Experiments
Dynamic SIMS
Static
The Study of Thin Organic Films
The Study of Polymers and Polymer Surfaces
Imaging Static SIMS of Organic Surface Chemistry
Analysis of Buried Organic Interfaces
Prospects for Future Applications
References
Self-Assembled Monolayers: Models for Organic Surface Chemistry, G.M. Whitesides and C.B. Gorman
Introduction
Preparations and Types of Self-Assembled Monolayers
Structural Characterization
Materials Properties
Patterning of Self-Assembled Monolayers
Contact Printing
Micro-Writing
Micro-Machining
Photolithography
Electron-Beam Writing
Applications
Wetting
Substrates for Surface Spectroscopy
Electrochemistry
Micro-Lithography and Nanometer Resists
Adhesion
Corrosion
Tribology
Attachment of Proteins
Attachment of Cells
Electrochemical Sensors
Non-Electrochemical Sensors
Multilayer Systems for Optical Coatings
Conclusions
Acknowlegement
References
Self-Assembled Monolayers: Models of Organic Interfaces, M.D. Porter and M.M. Walczak
Introduction
Sulfur-Containing Compounds at Gold
General Details
Wettability and Adhesion
Barrier Properties
Manipulation of Reactions
Self-Assembly of Multilayer Films
Future Directions
Acknowledgements
References
Semiconductor Thin Film Growth Dynamics during Molecular Beam Epitaxy, B.A. Joyce
Introduction
Growth Kinetics of III-V Compounds from Elemental Sources
Step Propagation Rates
Step Density Variation
Anisotropic Effects
Surface Relaxation Effects
Other Experimental Approaches
Growth of GaAs on GaAs (110) Surfaces
Growth Dynamics of Strained Layers
Acknowledgements
References
Sum Frequency Generation Studies of Bonding and Reaction at Interfaces, R.B. Hall
Introduction
Theory
Experimental Methods
Experimental Results
Vibrational Spectra of Adsorbates at Dielectric Interfaces
Vibrational Spectra of Adsorbates at Metal and Semiconductor Interfaces
Electronic Structure at Solid/Solid Interfaces
Overview and Outlook for the Future
References
Surface Catalysis on Metals, F.H. Ribeiro and G.A. Somorjai
Introduction
Definitions and Important Topics in Catalysis
Definition of Catalysis
Transition Metals are Good Catalysts
Understanding Catalysis by Theoretical Approaches
Turnover Rate and Selectivity
Sensitivity of Reactions to Catalyst Structure
Catalytic Surfaces
Catalysis is to be Studied Under Reaction Conditions
Adsorbed Species Under Reaction Conditions
Characterization of Catalysts
Kinetics
Modification of Catalytic Properties by Additives
The Frontiers
References
Surfaced Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Flexible Molecules, R.L. Garrell
Introduction
Background
Experimental Aspects
Selection Rules and Spectral Analysis
Applications
Simple Molecules and Surfactants
Biological Molecules
Polymers
Outlook
References
Surface Forces, J.N. Israelachvili
Introduction
Force-Measuring Techniques
Adhesion Forces
Force Laws
The Surface Force Apparatus (SFA) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)
Van der Waals Forces
Electrostatic Forces
Solvation Forces
Effects of Surface Structure
Effect of Surface Curvature and Geometry
Steric Thermal Fluctuation Forces
Hydration Forces
Repulsive Hydration Forces
Attractive Hyrophobic Forces
Origin of Hydration Forces
Adhesion and Capillary Forces
Adhesion Mechanics
Non-Equilibrium Interactions
Specific Interactions
Bridging Forces
Ligand-Receptor Interactions
Concluding Remarks
Acknowledgements
References
Thermal Desorption Mass Spectrometry, C.N. Chittenden, E.D. Pylant, A.L. Schwaner, and J.M. White
Introduction
Experimental Issues
Surface Preparation and Characterization
Molecular Dosing
Adsorbate Coverage Determination
Heating Methods, Uniformity, and Rates
Measurements that Complement TPD
Analysis of TPD Spectra-Modeling Kinetics
Redhead's Method of Peak Analysis
Leading Edge Analysis
Chan-Aris-Weinberg Analysis
Desorption Trace Analysis
Complete Analysis
Examples of TPD Analysis Methods
Acknowledgements
References
Tunneling Spectroscopy, B. Parkinson
Background
Voltage Dependent STM Imaging
Modulation Techniques
Local I-V Measurements
Other Spectroscopic Techniques
Overview
References
Vibrational Microspectroscopy for the Analysis of Surfaces and Particles on Surfaces, P.L. Lang
Chapter Purpose
The Study of Microscopic Regions on Surfaces
Adsorbate Orientation Study
Tribology Study
Characterization of Surface Contaminants
Identification of Pigments on Historic Artifacts
Surface Profiling
Study of Catalyst Surface
Study of Stress Transfer
Two-Dimensional Study of Phase Transformation
Depth Profiling
Cross-Sectioning and Physical Removal of Layers
Step-Wise Adjustment of Focus
Sampling Convenience and Control of Experimental Conditions
Control of Pressure and Temperature
Reduction of Sample Quantity
Ease of Use
Summary
References
X-Ray Photoelectron Diffraction, Y.U. Idzerda
Introduction
The XPD Measurement
Data Representation
Final-Site Effects
Emitted Electron Angular Momentum
Magnetic Quantum Numbers
Non-Statistical Initial m-Levels
Non-Statistical Final m-Levels
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, P.M.A. Sherwood
Introduction
The Information Provided by XPS
Instrumentation for XPS
Obtaining Accurate Electron Binding Energies
Surface Sensitivity
Data Analysis and Instrument Control
Chemical Information from Core XPS
Chemical Information from Valence Band XPS
Concluding Comments
References
X-Ray Standing Waves on Surfaces, H.D. Abruña
Introduction
X-Ray Standing Waves Based on Bragg Reflection
Total External Reflection X-Ray Standing Waves
Experimental Aspects
Data Analysis
Selected Examples
Bromine Adsorption on Si (220)
Packing Density and Potential Dependent Distributional Changes of Iodine on Pt
X-Ray Standing Wave Study of a Langmuir-Blodgett Multilayer Film
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

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Author(s)

Biography

Hubbard\, Arthur T.