The Handbook of Surface Imaging and Visualization: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

The Handbook of Surface Imaging and Visualization

1st Edition

By Arthur T. Hubbard

CRC Press

928 pages

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Hardback: 9780849389115
pub: 1995-08-31
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Description

This exciting new handbook investigates the characterization of surfaces. It emphasizes experimental techniques for imaging of solid surfaces and theoretical strategies for visualization of surfaces, areas in which rapid progress is currently being made. This comprehensive, unique volume is the ideal reference for researchers needing quick access to the latest developments in the field and an excellent introduction to students who want to acquaint themselves with the behavior of electrons, atoms, molecules, and thin-films at surfaces. It's all here, under one cover!

The Handbook of Surface Imaging and Visualization is filled with sixty-four of the most powerful techniques for characterization of surfaces and interfaces in the material sciences, medicine, biology, geology, chemistry, and physics. Each discussion is easy to understand, succinct, yet incredibly informative. Data illustrate present research in each area of study. A wide variety of the latest experimental and theoretical approaches are included with both practical and fundamental objectives in mind. Key references are included for the reader's convenience for locating the most recent and useful work on each topic. Readers are encouraged to contact the authors or consult the references for additional information.

This is the best ready reference available today. It is a perfect source book or supplemental text on the subject.

Table of Contents

ANGLE RESOLVED AUGER ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY, D.G. Frank

Introduction

Auger Electron Emission from Solid Surfaces

The Auger Phenomenon

Angle-Resolved Auger Electron Measurements

Experimental Considerations

Auger Electron KE and the "Secant Effect"

Incident Radiation

Angle-Resolving Analyzers

Auger Signal Detection

Data Visualization

Theoretical Approaches

Basic Principles

Empirical Trends

Empirical Blocking Model

Inelastic Scattering

Elastic Scattering

Example Applications

Depth Profiling

Monolayer Structure

Bilayer Structure

Single Crystals

Layered Crystals

Acknowledgements

References

Atomic Force Microscopy, A.A. Gewirth and J.R. LaGraff

Introduction

General Principles

AFM Operation

Tip-Sample Interaction

Representative Results

Electrochemistry

Biological Systems

Self-Assembled Langmuir-Blodgett Films

Crystal Dissolution and Growth

Future Prospects

Acknowledgement

References

Auger Electron Spectroscopy, N.H. Turner

Introduction

Basics

Elemental Identification

Surface Sensitivity

Overview of Spectral Features

Instrumentation

Vacuum Systems

Electron Sources

Energy Analyzers

Other Accessories

Spectral Features

Main Spectral Features

Charging

Quantification

Summary

References

Chemical Imaging Using Ion Microscopy, I. Gay and G.H. Morrison

Introduction

Instrumentation

Detection and Image Acquisition Systems

Quantification

Applications of Ion Microscopy

Materials Science and Geology

Biology and Medicine

Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Collision Induced Surface Processes, S.T. Ceyer

Introduction

Examples of Collision Induced Surface Processes

Translational Activation

Collision Induced Activation

Collision Induced Desorption

Collision Induced Absorption

Collision Induced Recombinative Desorption

Signficance of Collision Induced Surface Processes

References

Depth Profiling, G.B. Hoflund

Introduction

The Ion Sputtering Process

Pure Materials

Multicomponent Solids

References

Electrochemical Epitaxy, H.M. Baoming, T.E. Lister, and J.L. Stickney

Introduction

Experimental

Electrochemical Atomic Layer Epitaxy

Acknowledgements

References

Electrochemical Nucleation, R. de Levie

The Energetics of Nucleation

The Thermodynamics of Nucleated Monolayer Films

The Kinetics of Nucleation

Growth

Overlap

Experimental Observations

Metal Deposition

The Formation of Salt Layers

Condensation of Adsorbate Films

Relevance for Studies at the Metal-Vacuum Interface

General References

Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Studies of Electroactive Surface Films, S. Bruckenstein and R. Hillman

Principles of the Quartz Crystal Microbalance

In situ Application: The Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance

Chemical Principles

Chemical Systems

Polymer Films

Metal Oxide Films

Other Systems

Future Prospects

Absolute Measurement of Solvent Content

Crystal Impedance Modeling

Surface Morphology

Summary

References

Electron Beam Lithography, F.J. Hohn

Introduction

Classes of Electron Beam Lithography Tools

Gaussian Round Beam Systems

Variable Shape Beam Systems

Performance Limitations

Resolution

Accuracy

Electron Beam Lithography-Integration Considerations

Proximity Effect

Electron Beam Lithography Applications

Application Emphasis

Application for Nano-Devices

Summary

References

Electron Microscopy, J.M. Cowley

Introduction

The Scattering of High Energy Electrons by Matter

Instruments for Electron Microscopy

Use of Electron Microscopes for Surface Studies

Transmission Electron Microscopy

Plan-View Diffraction and Imaging

Profile Imaging

Transmission Electron Holography

Reflection Electron Microscopy (REM)

RHEED and REM

Contrast and Resolution in REM

Scanning Reflection Electron Microscopy

Reflection Electron Energy-Loss Analysis

Reflection Electron Holography

Imaging with Secondary Radiation

Secondary Electron Microscopy

Scanning Auger Microscopy

X-Ray Emission

Special Topics

UHV Instruments

Very Low Voltage Electron Holography

Conclusions

References

Electron Stimulated Desorption-Ion Angular Distribution (ESDIAD), J.T. Yates, Jr.

Introduction

The ESDIAD Phenomenon

The ESDIAD Measurement Technique

Selected Examples of ESDIAD Measurements on Metal and Semiconductor Surfaces

Chemisorption on a Metal Surface

Chemisorption on a Semiconductor Surface

Future Directions

Acknowledgements

References

Field Emission Ion Sources for Focused Ion Beams, J. Orloff

Introduction

Field Emission Process

Field Ionization

Field Evaporation

Liquid Metal Ion Sources

Properties of Field Emission Ion Sources

Gas Phase Field Ionization Sources

Liquid Metal Ion Sources

Implications for Focused Ion Beam Formation

References

Field Emission Microscopy, J.J. Hren and J. Liu

Surface Electron Microscopies

Field Electron Emission

Field Emission Microscopy

Field Emission from Crystals

The Theoretical Resolution of FEM

Practical FEM

The FEM of Absorbed Molecules

Combining Field Emission and Field Ion Microscopy

References

Field-Ion Microscopy and Spectroscopy, G. Ehrlich and N. Ernst

Historical Introduction

The Field Ion Microscope

Selected Applications

FIM Variants

The Atom Probe

Field Ion Appearance Energy Spectroscopy

Summary

Acknowledgements

References

Fluid-Fluid Interfaces: Optical Imaging of Capillary Systems, A.D. Nikolov and D.T. Wasan

Introduction

Imaging a Profile of a Fluid by Light Interference Phenomena

Reflection Interferometry

Differential Interferometry

Film Thickness Interferometry

Imaging the Film Structure by Using Diffractive Scattering Phenomena

Imaging Film Structure by Small Angle Diffraction

Imaging Film Structure by Background Light Scattering Diffraction

Imaging Film Structure by Light Scattering

Acknowledgements

References

Fullerenes Viewed by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Photoemission, and Inverse Photoemission, J.H. Weaver

Introduction

STM of Fullerene Films

Electron Spectroscopy of Fullerenes

C60 Valence and Conduction Bands

C84 and Graphite Valence Bands

C 1s Satellites and Plasmons for C60, C84, and Graphite

Summary

Acknowledgements

References

High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy, L.L. Kesmodel

Introduction

Experimental Apparatus

Theory

Dipole Scattering

Impact Scattering

Resonance Scattering

Examples

Applications

Supported Catalysts (Metal Clusters)

Characterization of Insulators for Silicon Technology

Polar Materials: Oxides

Polymer Surfaces

References

Imaging of Colliodal Particles, E. Matijevic

Introduction

Preparation of Uniform Colloids

Spherical Colloidal Particles

Coated and Hollow Particles

Colloidal Particles of Other Shapes

References

Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection Spectroscopy of Surface Active Species, R.P. Sperline and H. Freiser

Introduction

Overview

Research Objectives

Spectra of Adsorbates on Coated Optics

Adsorbate Orientation Studies Using Coated Optics

Advantages and Feasibility of ATR

Literature Applications of ATR

Self-Assembled Mono-/Bi-Layers

Experimental Approach

Spectra of the Surfactants Themselves

Probes Molecules for Film Structure

Materials and Equipment

Infrared Spectroscopy of Surfaces, J. Benziger

Introduction

Principles of Infrared Absorption

Types of Spectrometers

Transmission Spectroscopy

Metal Oxides

Supported Metals

Reflection Spectroscopy

External Reflection

Surface Kinetics

Internal Reflection

Other Techniques

Diffuse Reflectance

Photoacoustic and Photothermal Deflection

Emission Spectroscopy

Summary of Surface Infrared Techniques

References

Langmuir--Blodgett Films, A. Ullman

Introduction

LB Films of Long-Chain Fatty Acids

LB Films of Liquid-Crystalline Amphiphiles

LB Films of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines

LB Films of Polymerizable Amphiphiles

LB Films of Polymeric Amphiphiles

Potential Applications of LB Films

References

LEED Pattern Directory, D.G. Frank

Introduction and Theory

Introduction

Experimental

Basic Principles

Surface Dimensions from LEED Patterns

References

Hexagonal Surface Tabulations

Table of All Unit-Cells

Table of Primitive Unit-Cells

Table of Structures and LEED Patterns

Low-Energy Electron Diffraction: Some Basic Conceptual Tools, P.A. Thiel

Introduction

Definition of k and s

The Bragg Condition for a One-Dimensional Periodic Lattice

The Laué Condition for a One-Dimensional Periodic Lattice

Reciprocal Space Vectors

The Ewald Construction

The Typical LEED Experiment

Diffraction Profile as a Function of Island Size

Diffraction Profile in Terms of the Pair Correlation Function

Acknowledgements

References

Low-Energy Electron Microscopy, E. Bauer

Clean Surfaces: Morphology, Phase Transitions, Growth, Sublimation

Absorption, Segregation, Reactions

Thin Films: Growth, Structural Transitions, and The Interaction of Slow Electrons with Matter

Low-Energy Electron Microscopes

Resolution and Contrast

Applications

Desorption

Magnetic Microstructure

Outlook

References

Low Energy Ion Scattering Spectroscopy, S.H. Overbury

Introduction

Techniques

Fundamental Concepts in Ion Scattering

Application to Surface Imaging and Visualization

Acknowledgement

References

Magnetism in Low Dimensional Systems: Magnetic Properties of Thin Films, R. Wu, D. Wang, and A.J. Freeman

Summary

Introduction

Magnetic Moment Enhancement in Low-Dimensional Systems

Transition Metals

Rare Earth Metal Surface: Gd(0001)

Interfacial Effects

3d Overlayers on Inert Substrates

3d Overlayers on Transition Metal Substrates

Possibility to Realize 4d Magnetism

Fermi-Contact Hyperfine Field

Spin Density at the Fermi Level

Magneto-Crystalline Anisotropy

Magneto-Optical Effects

Smoke

Magneitc Circular X-Ray Dichroism

Conclusion

Acknowledgements

References

Metal Clusters on Oxides, X. Xu and D.W. Goodman

Introduction

Preparation of Metal Clusters on an Oxide Support

Metal Cluster Properties

Cohesive Energy

Size

Structure

Catalytic Activity

Cluster-Oxide Interactions

Conclusion

Acknowledgement

References

Metal Surface Reconstructions, P.A. Thiel and P.J. Estrup

Introduction

Structural Features of Known Reconstructions

Clean Surface Transformations

Adsorbate-Induced Transformations

Driving Force

General Remarks

Clean Surface Transformations

Adsorbate or Field-Induced Transformations

Mechanism

General Rules

CO on Pt(100)

Oxygen-Induced Added-Row Reconstructions

Phase Formation on W(100) and Mo(100)

Summary

Acknowledgements

References

Molecular Beam Epitaxy, C.W. Tu

Introduction

In situ Monitoring and Control

RHEED

Reflection and Desorption Mass Spectroscopy

Pyrometric Interferometry

Gas Sources

Growth Behavior

Alternative Sources

Carbon-Doped p-Type GaAs and InGaAs by Halomethanes

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgements

References

Molecular Beam Scattering: Diffraction, T. Engel

Advantages and Limits of the Utility of Atomic and Molecular Beam Diffraction

Experimental Aspects

Using Atom Diffraction to Obtain Atomic Structure within the Unit Cell

Atom Diffraction as a Probe of Surface Defects

Atom Diffraction as a Probe of Surface Phase Transitions: The Roughing Transition

Atom Diffraction as a Probe of Heteroepitaxial Growth: Metals on Metals

A Broader Framework and Outlook for the Future

References

Molecular Beam Scattering: Reactive Scattering, S.L. Bernasek

Introduction to the Technique

Experimental Aspects

Kinetic/Mechanistic Studies

Dynamic Studies

Conclusions and Prospects for the Future

References

Molecular Orbital Theory of Surfaces, A.B. Anderson

Introduction

How Surface Structures Are Calculated Using Molecular Orbital Theory

How Molecular Orbital Calculations Relate to Ionization, Optical, and Vibrational Spectroscopic Data

Surface Models for Molecular Orbital Calculations

Methods of Molecular Orbital Calculations

Concluding Comment

Acknowledgements

References

Molecular Orientation, M.P. Soriaga and R.J. Barriga

Introduction

Determination of Adsorbate Molecular Orientation

Determination Based upon a Comparison of Measured and Calculated Molecular Cross Sections

Determinations Based upon Surface Spectroscopy

Nature of Adsorbate Molecular Orientations

Reversible Adsorption: Adsorption Isotherms

Irreversible Adsorption: Surface Chemical Bonding

Acknowledgements

References

Monitoring Surface Chemistry with Optical Second Harmonic Generation, R.M. Corn and D.A. Higgins

Introduction

Experimental Considerations

Examples of SHG Surface Studies

Adsorption and Surface Coverage Measurements

Molecular Orientation Measurements

Surface Symmetry Measurements

Electric Field Measurements

Time Resolved Studies

Future Directions

Acknowledgements

References

Monolayer Surface Structures, G.A. Somorjai and J.D. Batteas

The Importance of Monolayer Surface Structures

Techniques for the Determination of Monolayer Structures

Low Energy Electron Diffraction

Photon Scattering and Diffraction

Scattering and Diffraction of Atoms and Ions

Scanning Probe Microscopies

Clean Surfaces, Relaxations, and Reconstructions

Atomic Adsorption on Metals

Molecular Overlayers on Metals

The Co-adsorption Phenomena

The Nature of Surface Chemical Bonding

An Outlook

Appendix I: Surface Structure Notation

References

Mössbauer Effect Spectroscopy, D.A. Scherson

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, J.F. HawBrief Description of the Method: Advantages and Limitations

Experimental Aspects

MES as a Probe of a Passive Film

MES as a Probe of an Electrochromic Film

MES as a Probe of an Electrocatalytic Mixed Metal Hydrous Oxide Film

References

Introduction

Spin Counting

Relaxation Time Measurements

Chemical Shift Spectroscopy

Broad Line Studies

Pulsed Field Gradient Measurements of Diffusion

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

In Situ NMR of Reactions on Surfaces

Future Prospects

Concluding Remarks

References

Optical Holographic Imaging, E.N. Leith

Introduction

Theory

Gabor Hologram

Off-Axis Method

Phase Conjugation

Complex Spatial Filtering

Holographic Interferometry

Holographic Optical Elements

Display Holography

Introduction

Volume Hologram

Rainbow Hologram

Integral Hologram

Concluding Comments

References

Optical Imaging of Particles, B.J. Thompson

Introduction

Incoherent Imaging

Image Space Parameters

Object Space Parameters

System with Constant Magnifications

Coherent Imaging

Holographic Imaging

Hologram of a Single Particle

Image Formation from the Hologram

System Design Considerations

Other Methods using Holography

Conclusions

References

Optically Detected Electron Spin Resonance of Aromatic Ketones Adsorbed on Surfaces, A.M. Nishimura

Introduction

Experimental

Results and Discussion: Al2O3; Ag; and Molecular Crystals

References

Organic Molecular Beam Epitaxy, N.R. Armstrong

General Description of the OMBE Process

Experimental Aspects

Epitaxial Layer Growth of Large Organic Molecules-The First Monolayer

Epitaxial Layer Frowth of Large Organic Molecules-Multilayer Formation

Prospects for the Future of OMBE

References

Photoelectron Emission Microscopy, M.E. Kordesch

Introduction

Classification

Characteristics/Requirements

Areas of Application

Microscope Function

Principles of Operation

Image Composition

Microscopes

Early Microscopes

Integrated Surface Science Microscopes

Synchrotron Radiation Microscopes

Applications

In Situ Surface Chemistry

Materials Analysis

Related Techniques

Acknowledgements

References and Bibliography

Picosecond Luminescence Studies of Recombination Dynamics at GaAs/Electrolyte Interfaces, G.L. Richmond, J.F. Kauffman, and B.A. Balko

Introduction

Analysis of Photoluminescence Data

Modelling Potential Dependent Photoluminescence Using the Dead Layer

Modelling Photoluminescence Decays

Experimental Considerations

Results and Discussion

Potential Dependent Studies of Photoluminescence Intensity

Photoluminescence Decay Measurements

Luminescence Decays as a Function of Applied Potential

Photocorrosion Studies

Summary

Acknowledgements

References

Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy, A. Weiss

Introduction

The PAES Mechanism

PAES Apparatus

Secondary Electron Background Elimination

Surface Sensitivity

Theoretical Calculations

PAES Intensities

Measurement of the Temperature Dependence of PAES

Applications of PAES

Studies of Metal Overlayers

Pd Films on Cu(100)

RH on Ag

Au on Si

Some Complications

Future PAES Research

Background Free Line Shape Measurements

Polarized Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy Spin Polarized Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Spectroscopy

PAES Microprobe

Acknowledgements

References

Radiotracer Study of Electrode Surfaces, M. Gamboa-Aldeco, K. Franaszszuk, and A. Wieckowski

General Description of the Method

Principles of Operation Radiochemical-Electrochemical Cell Designs

Thin-Foil (Film) Method

Thin-Gap Method

Evaluation of Experimental Error

Applications and Illustrations of the Method

Acknowledgements

References

Raman Spectroscopy of Surfaces, J.E. Pemberton

Introduction

Fundamentals of Raman Spectroscopy

Instrumental Considerations

A Brief History of surface Raman Spectroscopy

Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering(SERS)

Normal Raman Surface Scattering

Integrated Optical Waveguide Raman Spectroscopy

Total Internal Reflection Spectroscopy

Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

Plasmon Surface Polariton Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

Surface Selection Rules

Selected Examples of Raman Scattering on Metal Surfaces

Surface Raman Scattering in Electrochemical Systems

Self-Assembled Monolayers

The Future of Surface Raman Spectroscopy

Acknowledgements

References

Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy, A.J. Bard, F.-R.F. Fan, and M.V. Mirkin

Introduction

Instrumentation

Basic Apparatus

Tip Preparation

Theory of the SECM

Applications

SECM Images

Studies of Heterogeneous Kinetics at Substrate and Tip Surfaces

Probing Interfacial Films

Potentiometric Probes

References

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy of Electrode Surfaces in Situ, K. Itaya

Electrochemical Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

Well-Defined Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces

Metal Electrodes

Semiconductor Electrodes

Conclusions

References

Scanning X-Ray Photoelectron Microscopy (SXPEM), G.A. Garwood, Jr.

Introduction and Overview

Purpose of Chapter

SXPEM in Context

Scope of Chapter

Instruction in SXPEM

Tutorial on Technique

Instrumental Aspects

Potpourri of Applications

Inside the Literature

General Guide

Specific References

Landmarks and Milestones

Instruments and Applications

Scan Analyzer

X-Ray Microprobe

Parallel-Direct

Other Approaches

Imminent Prospects

Innovations and Improvements

Integration and Synergism

Acknowledgements

References

Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, J.A. Gardella, Jr.

Overview of the SIMS Experiments

Information Sought from SIMS Experiments

Dynamic SIMS

Static

The Study of Thin Organic Films

The Study of Polymers and Polymer Surfaces

Imaging Static SIMS of Organic Surface Chemistry

Analysis of Buried Organic Interfaces

Prospects for Future Applications

References

Self-Assembled Monolayers: Models for Organic Surface Chemistry, G.M. Whitesides and C.B. Gorman

Introduction

Preparations and Types of Self-Assembled Monolayers

Structural Characterization

Materials Properties

Patterning of Self-Assembled Monolayers

Contact Printing

Micro-Writing

Micro-Machining

Photolithography

Electron-Beam Writing

Applications

Wetting

Substrates for Surface Spectroscopy

Electrochemistry

Micro-Lithography and Nanometer Resists

Adhesion

Corrosion

Tribology

Attachment of Proteins

Attachment of Cells

Electrochemical Sensors

Non-Electrochemical Sensors

Multilayer Systems for Optical Coatings

Conclusions

Acknowlegement

References

Self-Assembled Monolayers: Models of Organic Interfaces, M.D. Porter and M.M. Walczak

Introduction

Sulfur-Containing Compounds at Gold

General Details

Wettability and Adhesion

Barrier Properties

Manipulation of Reactions

Self-Assembly of Multilayer Films

Future Directions

Acknowledgements

References

Semiconductor Thin Film Growth Dynamics during Molecular Beam Epitaxy, B.A. Joyce

Introduction

Growth Kinetics of III-V Compounds from Elemental Sources

Step Propagation Rates

Step Density Variation

Anisotropic Effects

Surface Relaxation Effects

Other Experimental Approaches

Growth of GaAs on GaAs (110) Surfaces

Growth Dynamics of Strained Layers

Acknowledgements

References

Sum Frequency Generation Studies of Bonding and Reaction at Interfaces, R.B. Hall

Introduction

Theory

Experimental Methods

Experimental Results

Vibrational Spectra of Adsorbates at Dielectric Interfaces

Vibrational Spectra of Adsorbates at Metal and Semiconductor Interfaces

Electronic Structure at Solid/Solid Interfaces

Overview and Outlook for the Future

References

Surface Catalysis on Metals, F.H. Ribeiro and G.A. Somorjai

Introduction

Definitions and Important Topics in Catalysis

Definition of Catalysis

Transition Metals are Good Catalysts

Understanding Catalysis by Theoretical Approaches

Turnover Rate and Selectivity

Sensitivity of Reactions to Catalyst Structure

Catalytic Surfaces

Catalysis is to be Studied Under Reaction Conditions

Adsorbed Species Under Reaction Conditions

Characterization of Catalysts

Kinetics

Modification of Catalytic Properties by Additives

The Frontiers

References

Surfaced Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Flexible Molecules, R.L. Garrell

Introduction

Background

Experimental Aspects

Selection Rules and Spectral Analysis

Applications

Simple Molecules and Surfactants

Biological Molecules

Polymers

Outlook

References

Surface Forces, J.N. Israelachvili

Introduction

Force-Measuring Techniques

Adhesion Forces

Force Laws

The Surface Force Apparatus (SFA) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)

Van der Waals Forces

Electrostatic Forces

Solvation Forces

Effects of Surface Structure

Effect of Surface Curvature and Geometry

Steric Thermal Fluctuation Forces

Hydration Forces

Repulsive Hydration Forces

Attractive Hyrophobic Forces

Origin of Hydration Forces

Adhesion and Capillary Forces

Adhesion Mechanics

Non-Equilibrium Interactions

Specific Interactions

Bridging Forces

Ligand-Receptor Interactions

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgements

References

Thermal Desorption Mass Spectrometry, C.N. Chittenden, E.D. Pylant, A.L. Schwaner, and J.M. White

Introduction

Experimental Issues

Surface Preparation and Characterization

Molecular Dosing

Adsorbate Coverage Determination

Heating Methods, Uniformity, and Rates

Measurements that Complement TPD

Analysis of TPD Spectra-Modeling Kinetics

Redhead's Method of Peak Analysis

Leading Edge Analysis

Chan-Aris-Weinberg Analysis

Desorption Trace Analysis

Complete Analysis

Examples of TPD Analysis Methods

Acknowledgements

References

Tunneling Spectroscopy, B. Parkinson

Background

Voltage Dependent STM Imaging

Modulation Techniques

Local I-V Measurements

Other Spectroscopic Techniques

Overview

References

Vibrational Microspectroscopy for the Analysis of Surfaces and Particles on Surfaces, P.L. Lang

Chapter Purpose

The Study of Microscopic Regions on Surfaces

Adsorbate Orientation Study

Tribology Study

Characterization of Surface Contaminants

Identification of Pigments on Historic Artifacts

Surface Profiling

Study of Catalyst Surface

Study of Stress Transfer

Two-Dimensional Study of Phase Transformation

Depth Profiling

Cross-Sectioning and Physical Removal of Layers

Step-Wise Adjustment of Focus

Sampling Convenience and Control of Experimental Conditions

Control of Pressure and Temperature

Reduction of Sample Quantity

Ease of Use

Summary

References

X-Ray Photoelectron Diffraction, Y.U. Idzerda

Introduction

The XPD Measurement

Data Representation

Final-Site Effects

Emitted Electron Angular Momentum

Magnetic Quantum Numbers

Non-Statistical Initial m-Levels

Non-Statistical Final m-Levels

Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, P.M.A. Sherwood

Introduction

The Information Provided by XPS

Instrumentation for XPS

Obtaining Accurate Electron Binding Energies

Surface Sensitivity

Data Analysis and Instrument Control

Chemical Information from Core XPS

Chemical Information from Valence Band XPS

Concluding Comments

References

X-Ray Standing Waves on Surfaces, H.D. Abruña

Introduction

X-Ray Standing Waves Based on Bragg Reflection

Total External Reflection X-Ray Standing Waves

Experimental Aspects

Data Analysis

Selected Examples

Bromine Adsorption on Si (220)

Packing Density and Potential Dependent Distributional Changes of Iodine on Pt

X-Ray Standing Wave Study of a Langmuir-Blodgett Multilayer Film

Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013050
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Physical & Theoretical
TEC015000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Imaging Systems
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science