This book, first published in 1971, details the Muhammad ‘Ārif manuscript which propagates the project of the Hejaz railway connecting Damascus with Medina and Mecca. The project has been seen as a specific, dramatic example of the phenomenon of growing Arab nationalism during the early years of the twentieth century. Included here is an annotated edition of the Arabic manuscript, an English translation, and an extensive introduction with notes and historical setting. The ‘Ārif manuscript gives a clear view of the struggle for reform in Turkey at the time when burgeoning Arab nationalism became an important factor in the railway project. Many aspects of Middle Eastern politics can be traced to basic factors described in the manuscript by ‘Ārif.