The History of Science  book cover
1st Edition

The History of Science

Edited By

Massimo Mazzotti

ISBN 9780415744416
Published February 19, 2020 by Routledge
2522 Pages

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Book Description

Science is one of the main features of the contemporary world, and shapes our lives to an extent that has no precedents in history. Yet science as we know it today is the outcome of contingent social processes, and its global success is far from self-explanatory. How did it happen? How did science emerge in history and became the most authoritative source of knowledge available in late modern societies? This set of volumes addresses these crucial questions through a selection of exemplary publications spanning antiquity to the present day. The reader will find an effective survey of the best scholarship in this rapidly growing field, and a map of the main revolutions as well as the long-term continuities that have characterized our understanding the world and our attempts to control it. The collection brings together areas of inquiry that have become increasingly distant and specialized, such as the history of antique science or Cold War studies, within broader narratives of the making of the modern world. They also reassess the traditional assumption of the exclusively Greek and Western origins of modern science, situating relevant knowledge, practices, and artefacts within the global networks that sustained them: in ancient as well as in modern times. The gathered materials address key historiographical issues, such as the relationship between science, magic, and religion; the role of science in nation-building processes; and the relationship between science and technology.


Table of Contents


Volume I Ancient Science


1 Hellenophilia versus the history of science

David Pingree

2 Affinities and elisions: Helen and Hellenocentrism

Heinrich von Staden

3 The historiography of Mesopotamian science

Francesca Rochberg

4 Egyptian mathematical texts and their contexts

Annette Imhausen

5 The adaptation of Babylonian methods in Greek numerical astronomy

Alexander Jones

6 Science in antiquity: the Greek and Chinese cases and their relevance to the problems of culture and cognition

Geoffrey Lloyd

7 Making up progress – in ancient Greek science writing

Markus Asper

8 Imagination and layered ontology in Greek mathematics

Reviel Netz

9 Hero of Alexandria’s mechanical geometry

Karin Tybjerg

10 A Roman engineer’s tales

Serafina Cuomo

11 Cicero’s astronomy

E. Gee

12 Machines, power and the ancient economy

Andrew Wilson

13 Women, writing and medicine in the classical world

Rebecca Flemming

14 Observers, objects, and the embedded eye; or, seeing and knowing in Ptolemy and Galen

Daryn Lehoux

15 The fundamental issues of the Chinese sciences

Geoffrey Lloyd and Nathan Sivin

16 Shock and awe: the performance dimension of Galen’s anatomy demonstrations

Maud W. Gleason

Volume II Medieval Science


17 When did modern science begin?

Edward Grant

18 Science and the early Christian church

David C. Lindberg

19 Situating Arabic science: locality versus essence

A. I. Sabra

20 The logic of non-Western science: mathematical discoveries in medieval India

David Pingree

21 Occult science and society in Byzantium: considerations for future research

Maria Mavroudi

22 Natural theology and the Qur’an

Robert G. Morrison

23 Freeing astronomy from philosophy: an aspect of Islamic influence on science

F. Jamil Ragep

24 The transmission of Arabic astronomy via Antioch and Pisa in the second quarter of the twelfth century

Charles Burnett

25 Cosmology and cosmogony in Doresh Reshumoth, a thirteenth-century commentary on the Torah

Y. Tzvi Langermann

26 A ‘college of astrology and medicine’? Charles V, Gervais Chrétien, and the scientific manuscripts of Maître Gervais’s College

Jean-Patrice Boudet

27 The Jesus hermaphrodite: science and sex difference in premodern Europe

Leah DeVun

28 Gendering the history of women’s healthcare

Monica H. Green

29 The impact of money on the development of fourteenth-century scientific thought

Joel Kaye

30 Technology and alchemical debate in the late Middle Ages

William Newman

31 Defining the boundaries of the natural in the fifteenth-century Brittany: the inquest into the miracles of Saint Vincent Ferrer (d. 1419)

Laura Smoller

Volume III Early Modern Science


32 The scientific revolution: a spoke in the wheel?

Roy Porter

33 Did science have a renaissance?

Brian P. Copenhaver

34 A sixteenth-century Arabic critique of Ptolemaic astronomy: the work of Shams al-Dīn al-Khafrī

George Saliba

35 A scholarly intermediary between the Ottoman Empire and Renaissance Europe

Robert Morrison

36 Animism and empiricism: Copernican physics and the origins of William Gilbert’s experimental method

John Henry

37 Knowledge in motion: following itineraries of matter in the early modern world

Pamela H. Smith

38 Galileo the emblem maker

Mario Biagioli

39 Possessing the past: the material world of the Italian Renaissance

Paula Findlen

40 Dissecting the female body: from women’s secrets to the secrets of nature

Katherine Park

41 Miracles, experiments, and the ordinary course of nature

Peter Dear

42 The house of experiment in seventeenth-century England

Steven Shapin

43 Alchemy restored

Lawrence M. Principe

44 Body and passions: materialism and the early modern state

Harold J. Cook

45 Patterns of transformation in seventeenth-century mechanics

Domenico Bertoloni Meli

46 Descartes’s geometry as spiritual exercise

Matthew L. Jones

47 On Yeti and being just: carving the borders of humanity in early modern China

Carla Nappi

Volume IV Science in the Age of Enlightenment


48 Science in the Enlightenment, revisited

Jan Golinski

49 Situating science in global history: local exchanges and networks of circulation

Lissa Roberts

50 Enlightened automata

Simon Schaffer

51 The role of musical analogies in Newton’s optical and cosmological work

Niccolò Guicciardini

52 Newton for ladies: gentility, gender and radical culture

Massimo Mazzotti

53 Machines in the garden

Jessica Riskin

54 French engineers become professionals; or, how meritocracy made knowledge objective

Ken Alder

55 The fiscal logic of enlightened German science

André Wakefield

56 Enlightenment calculations

Lorraine Daston

57 Global knowledge on the move: itineraries, Amerindian narratives, and deep histories of science

Neil Safier

58 Colonial encounters and the forging of new knowledge and national identities: Great Britain and India, 1760–1850

Kapil Raj

59 Visible empire: scientific expeditions and visual culture in the Hispanic enlightenment

Daniela Bleichmar

60 Medical experimentation and race in the eighteenth-century Atlantic world

Londa Schiebinger

61 Salon, academy, and boudoir: generation and desire in Maupertuis’s science of life

Mary Terrall

62 Nature as a marketplace: the political economy of Linnaean botany

Staffan Müller-Wille

63 Experimental spaces and the knowledge economy

Larry Stewart

64 The ghost of Rostow: science, culture and the British industrial revolution

William J. Ashworth

Volume V The Modern Physical and Mathematical Sciences


65 Quantification and the accounting ideal in science

Theodore M. Porter

66 The organic roots of Mendeleev’s periodic law

Michael D. Gordin

67 Einstein’s clocks: the place of time

Peter Galison

68 "An expedition to heal the wounds of war": the 1919 eclipse and Eddington as Quaker adventurer

Matthew Stanley

69 Worldviews and physicists’ experience of disciplinary change: on the uses of ‘classical’ physics

Richard Staley

70 Objectivity and the scientist: Heisenberg rethinks

Cathryn Carson

71 Freedom, collectivism, and quasiparticles: social metaphors in quantum physics

Alexei Kojevnikov

72 When computers were women

Jennifer S. Light

73 Stick-figure realism: conventions, reification, and the persistence of Feynman diagrams, 1948–1964

David Kaiser

74 What difference did computers make?

Jon Agar

75 Negotiating arithmetic, constructing proof: the sociology of mathematics and information technology

Donald MacKenzie

76 Negotiating global nuclearities: apartheid, decolonization, and the Cold War in the making of the IAEA

Gabrielle Hecht

Volume VI The Modern Life and Earth Sciences


77 Artisan botany

Anne Secord

78 The creed of science and its critics

Bernard Lightman

79 Science "gone native" in colonial India

Gyan Prakash

80 Race and language in the Darwinian tradition (and what Darwin’s language–species parallels have to do with it)

Gregory Radick

81 After the double helix: Rosalin Franklin’s research on Tobacco mosaic virus

Angela N. H. Creager and Gregory J. Morgan

82 Life, DNA and the model

Robert Bud

83 Making males aggressive and females coy: gender across the animal-human boundary

Erika Lorraine Milam

84 Towards a data base of dreams: assembling an archive of elusive materials, c. 1947–61

Rebecca Lemov

85 The ontology of the enemy: Norbert Wiener and the cybernetic vision’

Peter Galison

86 Communicating the north: scientific practice and Canadian postwar identity

Edward Jones-Imhotep

87 "Collective monitoring, collective defense": science, earthquakes, and politics in communist China

Fa-ti Fan

88 Challenging knowledge: how climate science became a victim of the Cold War

Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway

89 Imperial climatographies from Tyrol to Turkestan

Deborah R. Coen

90 Meteorology as infrastructural globalism

Paul N. Edwards







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Professor Massimo Mazzotti is Director, Center for Science, Technology, Medicine & Society at the University of California, Berkeley, USA.