Fratricide has been defined as firing on your own forces, when mistaking them for enemy forces, which results in injury or death. Rates of fratricide incidence have been steadily increasing and the complexity of the contemporary operating environment may lead to a continuation of this trend. Although the majority of research into fratricide has focused on the development of technological decision aids, recent explorations highlight the need to emphasise the social aspects within a socio-technical framework. This book presents and validates, via the use of case studies, a model of teamwork and decision-making factors that are associated with incidents of fratricide. In summary, it offers a review and evaluation of contemporary theoretical perspectives on teamwork and fratricide, as well as a range of accident analysis approaches. A novel theory of fratricide is then presented followed by a new methodology for assessing fratricide. Naturalistic case studies of teams are undertaken in the military domain. These studies illustrate the approach and offer early validation evidence. In closing, the book presents a series of principles designed to reduce the likelihood of fratricide in the future.
Table of Contents
Contents: Introduction; Fratricide, expectations, situation awareness and teamwork; Application of the F3 Model to a case study of fratricide; FEAST: fratricide event analysis of systemic teamwork; It's good to talk: explorations into the communications surrounding shoot, no-shoot decisions; The communication masking effect: why it's not always good to talk; Is it better to be connected?; Comparison of populated models ; Conclusion and recommendations; References and bibliography; Index.
Dr Laura Rafferty completed her undergraduate studies in 2007 graduating with a BSc in Psychology (Hons) from Brunel University. In the course of this degree Laura completed two industrial placements, the second of which was working as a Research Assistant in the Ergonomics Research Group. During this seven month period Laura helped to design, run and analyse a number of empirical studies being run for the Human Factors Integration Defence Technology Centre (HFI DTC) at Brunel. Within this time Laura also completed her dissertation exploring the qualitative and quantitative differences between novices and experts within military command and control. From April 2009 Laura has been employed in the Transportation Research Group at the University of Southampton as a Project Assistant for the HFI DTC working on projects including Naturalistic Decision Making in Teams, Contemporising the Combat Estimate and compiling a Human Factors Methods Database. In July 2011 Laura was awarded a PhD in Human Factors from the University of Southampton. Professor Stanton holds a Chair in Human Factors in the School of Civil Engineering and the Environment at the University of Southampton. He has published more than 150 peer-reviewed journal papers and 20 books on Human Factors and Ergonomics. In 1998, he was awarded the Institution of Electrical Engineers Divisional Premium Award for a co-authored paper on Engineering Psychology and System Safety. The Ergonomics Society awarded him the Otto Edholm medal in 2001 and The President's Medal in 2008 for his contribution to basic and applied ergonomics research. In 2007, The Royal Aeronautical Society awarded him the Hodgson Medal and Bronze Award with colleagues for their work on flight deck safety. Professor Stanton is an editor of the journal Ergonomics and on the editorial boards of Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science. Professor Stanton is a Fellow and Chartered Occupational Psychologist registered with The British Psychological Society, and a Fellow of The Ergonomics Society. He has a BSc (Hons) in Occupational Psychology from the University of Hull, an MPhil in Applied Psychology and a PhD in Human Factors from Aston University in Birmingham. Dr Guy Walker is a lecturer in the School of the Built Environment at Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, and his research focuses on human factors issues in infrastructure and transport. He is a recipient, with his colleagues, of the Ergonomics Society's President's Medal for original research. He is also author/co-author of nine books on diverse topics in human factors, including a major text on human factors methods, and is author/co-author of over fifty international peer-reviewed journals.
'Rafferty, Stanton and Walker have produced an ambitious account of a phenomenon that is both traumatic and fascinating. They review existing attempts to account for fratricide, and then describe the innovative systems based methods they used. The result is a sophisticated model blending decision making, distributed situation awareness and teamwork. They use this model to analyze instances of fratricide, and to generate recommendations for reducing the risks.' Gary Klein, MacroCognition LLC 'Fratricide, better known as "friendly fire" is a distressing and puzzling aspect of warfare. Rafferty, Stanton and Walker's The Human Factors of Fratricide provides not only an excellent introduction to the subject, illustrated with dramatic examples, but it also presents a novel method to examine the human factors components of their causality. Their systematic analysis of three case studies reveals surprising insights into failures in team processes that can produce terrible consequences.' Rhona Flin, University of Aberdeen, UK 'Fratricide must be avoided at all cost-the world demands it. Clearly, the science of human factors must step-up to help. And, indeed, it has. Thanks to Laura, Neville and Guy we now have a one-of-a-kind source that lays the road to understanding the complex interactions involved in fratricide. This book is full of insights, approaches, theories and examples of how to ameliorate and understand fratricide. Those who study human error where the stakes are high - this is a must read!' Eduardo Salas, University of Central Florida, USA ’...there is enough here to support practitioners in their efforts to prevent fratricide and equip us with the knowledge required to prevent it.’ Journal of Battlefield Technology, Vol 16, No 2, July 2013