1st Edition

The Impact of Covid-19 on Prison Conditions and Penal Policy

    722 Pages 47 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    722 Pages 47 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    The Impact of COVID-19 on Prison Conditions and Penal Policy presents the results of a worldwide exchange of information on the impact of COVID-19 in prisons. It also focuses on the human rights questions that have been raised during the pandemic, relating to the treatment of prisoners in institutions for both juveniles and adults worldwide.

    The first part brings together the findings and conclusions of leading prison academics and practitioners, presenting national reports with information on the prison system, prison population rates, how COVID-19 was and is managed in prisons, and its impact on living conditions inside prisons and on reintegration programmes. Forty-four countries are covered – many in Europe, but also Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Perú, Costa Rica, Canada, the USA, Kenya, South Africa, China, India, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. In the second part, thematic chapters concentrate explicitly on the impact of the pandemic on the application of international human rights standards in prisons and on worldwide prison population rates. The book concludes by drawing out the commonalities and diverging practices between jurisdictions, discussing the impact of measures introduced and reflecting on what could be learnt from policies that emerged during the pandemic. Particular attention is paid to whether "reductionist" strategies that emerged during the pandemic can be used to counteract mass incarceration and prison overcrowding in the future.

    Although the book reflects the situation until mid 2021, after the second and during the third wave of the pandemic, it is highly relevant to the current situation, as the living conditions in prisons did not change significantly during the following waves, which showed high infection rates (in particular in the general population), but increased vaccination rates, too. In prisons, problems the pandemic raises have an even greater impact than for the general society.

    Revealing many notable and interesting changes in prison life and in release programmes, this book is essential reading for students and scholars of penology, criminology, law, sociology and public health. It will also appeal to criminal justice practitioners and policy makers.

    1. Introduction

    Frieder Dünkel, Stefan Harrendorf and Dirk van Zyl Smit

    National chapters

    2. Australia

    Lorana Bartels, Thalia Anthony, Felicity Gerry, Andreea Lachsz and Steven Caruana

    3. Austria

    Walter Hammerschick and Karin Bruckmüller

    4. Belgium

    Olivia Nederlandt, An-Sofie Vanhouche and Kristel Beyens

    5. Brazil

    Ellen Rodrigues and Eduardo Khoury

    6. Canada

    Sandra Bucerius, Rosemary Ricciardelli and Luca Berardi

    7. Chile

    Alvaro Castro Morales, Guillermo Sanhueza, Julio Cortéz and Violeta Puran

    8. China

    Spencer Li

    9. Colombia, Bolivia, Perú, Argentina

    Cesar Valderrama and Juan Hernandez

    10. Costa Rica

    Carlos Tiffer-Sotomayor and Paola Tiffer Hangen

    11. Croatia

    Maja Munivrana Vajda and Elizabeta Ivičević Karas

    12. Czech Republic

    Helena Válková and Jana Hulmáková

    13. Denmark

    Anette Storgaard and Linda Kjaer Minke

    14. England/Wales

    Catherine Heard and Nicola Padfield

    15. Estonia

    Priit Kama and Anneli Soo

    16. Finland

    Tapio Lappi-Seppälä

    17. France

    Martine Herzog-Evans

    18. Germany

    Frieder Dünkel and Christine Morgenstern

    19. Greece

    Maria Anagnostaki

    20. Hungary

    Zsuzsanna Juhász

    21. India

    Madhurima Dhanuka

    22. Ireland (including Northern Ireland)

    Ciara O’Connell, Mary Rogan, Michelle Martyn and Shadd Maruna

    23. Italy

    Lorenzo Picotti and Luisa Ravagnani

    24. Japan

    Kenji Takeuchi and Akinori Otani

    25. Kenya

    Mercy Deche, Conrad Bosire and Sarah Kinyanjui

    26. Latvia

    Ilona Kronberga

    27. Lithuania

    Gintautas Sakalauskas

    28. Netherlands

    Jolande uit Beijerse and Miranda Boone

    29. New Zealand

    Alice Mills

    30. North Macedonia

    Gordana Lažetic and Elena Mujoska-Trpevska

    31. Norway

    Berit Johnsen

    32. Poland

    Barbara Stańdo-Kawecka

    33. Portugal

    Anabela Miranda Rodriguez and Inês Horta Pinto

    34. Romania

    Ioan Durnescu and Ioana Mihaela Morar

    35. Russia

    Sergey Ovchinnikov

    36. Scotland

    Hannah Graham and Katrina Morrison

    37. Serbia

    Milan Skulić

    38. Slovakia

    Miroslava Vráblová

    39. Slovenia

    Danijela Mrhar Prelić and Robert Friškovec

    40. South Africa

    Lukas Muntingh

    41. Spain

    Josep Cid, Laura Negredo López and Carles Soler

    42. Sweden

    Lars Håkan Nilsson and Jenny Kärrholm

    43. Switzerland

    Melanie Wegel and Jonas Weber

    44. Turkey

    Galma Akdeniz and İdil Aydınoğlu

    45. USA

    James Byrne, Don Hummer, Sabrina S. Rapisarda and Kimberly R. Kras

    Comparative chapters

    46. International prisoners and the pandemic – Seeking release, improved conditions and family contact before international criminal courts

    Roisin Mulgrew

    47. International Human Rights and COVID-19 in prisons: Medical isolation and independent oversight

    Dirk van Zyl Smit, Roisin Mulgrew

    48. Prison population rates before and during the pandemic: lessons from COVID-19 about over-incarceration and its consequences for health

    Catherine Heard

    49. Summary analysis of the situation in prisons and prison policy during and after the SARS-CoV-2 induced crisis

    Frieder Dünkel, Stefan Harrendorf, Dirk van Zyl Smit

    50. What could we learn from COVID-19? – a reductionist and penal moderation approach

    Frieder Dünkel, Sonja Snacken


    Frieder Dünkel is Professor Emeritus at the Department of Criminology at the University of Greifswald, Germany.

    Stefan Harrendorf is Professor of Criminology, Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure and Comparative Criminal Law and Justice at the University of Greifswald, Germany.

    Dirk van Zyl Smit is Professor Emeritus of Comparative and International Penal Law at the University of Nottingham, UK, and Professor Emeritus of Criminology at the University of Cape Town, South Africa.