1st Edition

The Indian Ocean Tsunami

ISBN 9781138496330
Published July 29, 2018 by CRC Press
528 Pages

USD $115.00

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Book Description

The Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004 is considered to have been one of the worst natural disasters in history, affecting twelve countries, from Indonesia to Somalia. 175,000 people are believed to have lost their lives, almost 50,000 were registered as missing and 1.7 million people were displaced. As well as this horrendous toll on human life, the tsunami destroyed property worth billions of dollars and ruined many local economies. Based on their experience and analysis of this tsunami, the authors have developed methodologies for predicting and preparing for tsunamis. A basis is provided for a cost-effective warning and preparedness strategy, drawing on the example of existing systems used in earthquake disaster management and tidal wave warning, from genesis to impact. The book comprehensively addresses the fundamentals of tsunami science, identifying potential areas where tsunamis might be generated, predicting the anticipated course of tsunamis and considering how the geophysical, ecological and socioeconomic location of a community may determine the severity of tsunami damage. The authors suggest how precursors can be used to enhance the advance warning time, how tsunamis can be detected at the time of their occurrence, and the manner in which warnings should be communicated to the populations likely to be affected. Finally, improvement in eco-sociological resilience through the application of dual-use technologies is identified as a pivotal aid in allowing coastal communities to be better prepared. The book will be of interest to a global audience of professionals and academics active in seismology, ocean science, meteorology, coastal management, earthquake engineering and disaster management.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Section 1: Geostructural Environment of Tsunami Genesis

  1. A Historical Account of the Earthquakes and Tsunamis in the Indian Ocean

B.K. Rastogi

Chapter 2: Impact of Coastal Morphology, Structure and Seismicity on the Tsunami Surge

K.S.R.Murthy, V.Subrahmanyam, G.P.S.Murty and K.Mohana Rao

Chapter 3: Tsunamigenic Sources in the Indian Ocean : Factors and Impact on the Indian Landmass

R.K. Chadha

Chapter 4: Palaeo-Tsunami and Storm Surge Deposits

K. Arun Kumar, Hema Achyuthan, and Navin Shankar

Chapter 5: Overview, and Integration

U.Aswathanarayana (Editor)

Section 2: Modeling of Tsunami Generation and Propagation

Chapter 6: A Review of Classical Concepts on Phase and Amplitude Dispersion: Application to Tsunamis

N. Nirupama, T.S. Murty, I. Nistor, and A.D. Rao

Chapter 7: A Possible Explanation for the Initial Withdrawal of the Ocean during the Tsunami

N.Nirupama, T.S. Murty, A.D. Rao & I.Nistor

Chapter 8: The Energetics of the Tsunami of 26 December 2004 in the Indian Ocean: A Brief Review

N.Nirupama, T.S.Murty, I. Nistor & A.D.Rao

Chapter 9: Possible Amplification of the Tsunami through Coupling with Internal Waves

N.Nirupama, T.S.Murty, I. Nistor & A.D.Rao

Chapter 10: Numerical Modeling of the Indian Ocean Tsunami

Zygmunt Kowalik, William Knight, Tom Logan, Paul Whitmore

Chapter 11: Modelling Techniques for Understanding the Indian Ocean Tsunami Propagation

V.P.Dimri and Kirti Srivastava

Chapter 12: Validation of Tsunami Beach Run-up Height Predictive Model Based on the Work-Energy Theorem

G. Muraleedharan, A.D. Rao, T.S. Murty and Mourani Sinha

Chapter 13: Normal Modes and Tsunami Coastal Effects

N. Nirupama, T.S.Murty, A.D. Rao and I. Nistor

Chapter 14: Helmholtz Mode and K-S-P Waves: Application to Tsunami

N. Nirupama, T.S.Murty, I. Nistor and A.D. Rao

Chapter 15: Numerical Models for the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 26 December 2004: A Brief Review

P. Chittibabu and T.S. Murty

Chapter 16: The Cauchy-Poisson Problem: Application to Tsunami Generation and Propagation

N. Nirupama, T.S.Murty, I. Nistor and A.D. Rao

Chapter 17: A Review and Listing of Tsunami Heights and Travel Times for the 26 December 2004 Event

I. Nistor, K. Xie, N. Nirupama and T.S. Murty

Chapter 18: Overview and Integration

N. Nirupama (Editor)

Section 3: Tsunami Detection and Monitoring Systems

Chapter 19: Satellite Detection of Pre-Earthquake Thermal Anomaly and Sea Water Turbidity

Arun K. Saraf, Swapnamita Choudhury, Sudipta Dasgupta and J. Das

Chapter 20: Possible Detection in the Ionosphere of the Signals from Earthquakes and Tsunamis

T.S. Murty, N. Nirupama, A.D. Rao and I. Nistor

Chapter 21: Seismic Precursors in the Ionosphere Registered by DEMETER Satellite

A.K. Gwal, S.Sarkar,S. Bhattacharya and M. Parrot

Chapter 22: Web-Enabled and Real Time – Reporting, Cellular-Based Instrumentation for Coastal Sealevel and Surge Monitoring

Anthony Joseph and R.G. Prabhudesai

Chapter 23: Methodologies of Tsunami Detection

T.S. Murty, N. Nirupama, A.D. Rao and I. Nistor

Chapter 24: Tsunami Travel Time Atlas for the Indian Ocean

P.K. Bhaskaran, S.K. Dube, T.S. Murty, A. Gangopadhyay, A. Chaudhuri, A.D. Rao, and N. Nirupama

Chapter 25: Overview and Integration

N. Nirupama (Editor)

Section 4: Biophysical and Socio-economic Dimensions of Tsunami Damage

Chapter 26: Performance of Structures Affected by the 2004 Sumatra Tsunami in Thailand and Indonesia

Murat Saatcioglu, Ahmed Ghobarah, and I. Nistor

Chapter 27: Field Observations on the Tsunami Impact on the Kerala Coast, South West India

N.P. Kurian, T.N.Prakash, and M.Baba

Chapter 28: Ecological Impact of the Indian Ocean Tsunami


Chapter 29: Tsunami Damage to the Southeastern Coast of India

N. Chandrasekar and R. Ramesh

  Chapter 30: Hydrophysical Manifestations of the Indian Ocean Tsunami

Y.Sadhuram, T.V.Ramana Murthy and B.P.Rao

Chapter 31: Tsunami and Marine Life

D.V. Subba Rao, Baban Ingole, Danling Tang, B. Satyanarayana, Hui Zhao

Chapter 32: Remote Sensing of tsunami impact on the coastal habitats of India

P. N. Sridhar, A. Surendran, Sarika Jain and B. Veera Nanayan

Chapter 33: Overview and Integration

U. Aswathanarayana (Editor)

Section 5: Quo Vadis

Chapter 34: Protective Measures Against Natural Hazards

V. Sundar

Chapter 35: Protective Role of Coastal Ecosystems: Implications for Hazard Preparedness

A. Mascarenhas and S. Jayakumar

Chapter 36: Integrated Preparedness Systems

U. Aswathanarayana

Chapter 37: Social and Political Aspects of Tsunami

Response, Recovery and Preparedness Planning: A Transdisciplinary Approach

Carol Amaratunga and H.S. Fowler

Chapter 38: An Ideal Conceptual Tsunami Warning System for the Indian Ocean

T.S. Murty, A.D. Rao, N. Nirupama, and I. Nistor

Chapter 39: Overview and Integration

N. Nirupama (Editor)





The Indian Ocean Tsunami by Tad S. Murty & U. Aswathanarayana

1. Geostructural environment of Tsunami Genesis

  • 1.1 History of earthquakes and tsunamis in the Indian Ocean.
  • 1.2 The seismotectonics of the Bengal Fan region.
  • 1.3 Tsunami-genic sources in the Indian Ocean : factors and impact on the Indian landmass.
  • 1.4 Historical Earthquakes and Tsunami in the Indian Ocean region
  • 1.5 Overview, and Integration

2. Modeling of Tsunami Generation and Propagation

  • 2.1 Tsunami generation, propagation and coastal inundation
  • 2.2 A critical evaluation of the dispersion characteristics with reference to travel times, maximum amplitudes, and inundation
  • 2.3 Numerical modelling of tsunami generation and propagation.
  • 2.4 Numerical modeling of the tsunami of 26 Dec. 2004 in the Indian Ocean.
  • 2.5 Tsunami wave propagation modeling with special reference to the Indian Ocean
  • 2.6.Numerical modeling of the tsunami of 26th December 2004
  • 2.7.Numerical modeling of the Indian ocean tsunami
  • 2.8. Overview, and Integration

3. Tsunami Detection and Monitoring Systems

  • 3.1 Satellite detection of pre-earthquake thermal anomaly and sea water turbidity
  • 3.2 Possible detection of the tsunami signal in the ionosphere.
  • 3.3 Pacific Ocean Tsunami Warning System
  • 3.4 Atlantic Ocean tsunami warning system.
  • 3.5 Tsunami Warning Systems
  • 3.6 Web enabled instrumentation for coastal sea level and surge monitoring.
  • 3.7 Overview, and Integration with other aspects

4. Biophysical and Socio-economic Dimensions of Tsunami Damage

  • 4.1 Tsunami Damage in Indonesia
  • 4.2 Tsunami Damage in Thailand
  • 4.3 Health impacts of tsunami, with emphasis on Sri Lanka.
  • 4.4 Social aspects of tsunami with reference to India
  • 4.5 Engineering aspects of tsunami damage
  • 4.6 Evaluation of the tsunami survey on the Kerala coast
  • 4.7 Social impacts of the tsunami with reference to India.
  • 4.8 Tsunami coastal survey in India
  • 4.9 Post tsunami survey for Kanyakumari and Kerala.
  • 4.10 Field data, runup, wave heights
  • 4.11 Ecological impact of tsunami on the coastal waters of southwest India.
  • 4.12 Damages due to tsunami in southeastern coast of India.
  • 4.13 Impact of Sumatra tsunami on the coastal environment of India.
  • 4.14 Ecological effects of the Indian Ocean tsunami.of Dec. 26, 2004
  • 4.15.Impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami on the Sri Lankan coastline.
  • 4.16 Tsunami impact on coastal habitats
  • 4.17 Overview, and Integration

5. Quo Vadis

  • 5.1 Socio-economic dimensions of tsunami preparedness and mitigation.
  • 5.2 5.2 Integrated Preparedness Systems
  • 5.3 Public education and increasing awareness.
  • 5.4 Tsunami Prediction Methodologies
  • 5.5 An ideal Indian Ocean state-of-art tsunami warning system
  • 5.6 Overview, and Integration

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Tad Murty is an world-wide acknowledged expert on tusnamis. He is an Adjunct Professor with the University of Ottawa, Canada. His expertise on tsunamis, hurricanes and storm surges are well known to the scientific world.Prof. Murty is the former president of the Tsunami Society.

U. Aswathanarayana, has over 50 years of research and teaching experience in many countries of the world and is specialized in Nuclear Geology, Geochemistry, Economic Geology and Natural Resources Management. He is currently the Director of the Mahadevan International Centre for Water Resources Management, Hyderabad, India, which is a part of the UNESCO – TWAS Network of Scientific Organizations. Prof. Aswathanarayana was awarded the prestigious Excellence in Geophysical Education Award (2005) of the American Geophysical Union for his meritorious contributions to the paradigm shift in geoscience instruction.

Niru Nirupama is an Assistant Professor with the Emergency Management Certificate Program in the Atkinson Faculty of Liberal & Professional Studies of York University, Canada. Her research interests include Hazards & Risk Assessment and Multi-Criteria Decision Making for Disaster Management.