1st Edition

The Industrial & Commercial Revolutions in Great Britain During the Nineteenth Century

By L.C.A Knowles Copyright 2006
    440 Pages
    by Routledge

    440 Pages
    by Routledge

    First Published in 2005. In this book, the author seeks to bring out the causes which led to the coming of machinery and which made Great Britain the workshop of the world for a large part of the nineteenth century. Knowles especially stresses the world position of the United Kingdom during the past century owing to the developments of mechanical transport which were the inevitable outcome of the mass production by machines. This title also aims to account for the great change in public opinion after 1870, which led to the growth of State control, not merely in industry, but in commerce, agriculture, transport and imperial relations.




    Part I: Introduction 1

    The Principal Features of Nineteenth Century Economic Development.

    Part II: The Industrial Revolution Caused by Machinery 15

    (i) Features of the Industrial Revolution.

    (ii) Why the Industrial Revolution cwie first in Great Britain. 26

    (iii) The Inventions in the Textiles. 47

    (a) The Spinning of Cotton and Wool.

    (b) Weaving.

    (c) Linen, Lace and Hosiery.

    (d) Industrial Chemistry.

    (iv) Slow Progress of the Factory System and the 61

    Development of Engineering and Coal Mining.

    (a) The Reluctance to abandon Family Work.

    (b) Reluctance of the Employer to embark on Factory Production.

    (c) Growth of Population relieved the Scarcity of Hands.

    (d) Development of Engineering and Coal Mining.

    (v) Economic and Social Effects of the Change. 79

    Part III: Industrial and Commercial Policy in Great Britain during the Nineteenth Century 110

    (i) Laissez-faire and the Reaction. 112

    (a) 1793–I815. The period of the French Wars.

    (b) 1815–1830 Reaction after the Wars.

    (c) 1830–1850. Period of Reforms.

    (d) 1850–1873. The Good Years.

    (e) 1873–1886. The Great Depression.

    (f) 1886–1914. State Control.

    (ii) Causes of the Supremacy of Great Britain during the Nineteenth Century. 162

    (iii) Growth in the Welfare of the Working Classes. 167

    (iv) The Contrast between the Individualism of Great Britain and the Paternalism of France and Germany. 171

    (v) The Economic Position of Great Britain in 1815 and 1914. 177

    Part IV: The Commercial Revolution caused by Mechanical Transport 180

    (i) The Revolution in the Importance of Continental Areas.

    (ii) The Revolution in Commercial Staples and Commercial and Industrial Organization. 198

    (iii) The Creation of a New Financial Era. 212

    (iv) Social Effects of the Conimeriai Revolution 215

    Part V: The Development of Mechanical Transport in Great Britain and the Problem of State Control of Transport 233

    (i) Roads. 236

    (ii) Canals. 240

    (iii) Railways. 253

    (a) 1821–1844. The Period of Experiment.

    (b) 1844–1873. The Consolidation of the Lines.

    (c) 1873–1893. The Development of State Control.

    (d) 1893–1914. Amalgamations and the Question of Nationalization.

    (iv) The Steamship and Shipping Problem. 291

    (a) Free Trade in Shipping.

    (b) The Coming of the Steamship and the Continuous Change in Technique.

    (c) The Supremacy of the United Kingdom in Shipbuilding and in the Carrying Trades.

    (d) The Growth of Foreign Shipping.

    (e) Combination in the Shipping World.

    (f) The Government and Shipping.

    Part VI: The Industrial and Commercial Revolutions and the New Constructive Imperialism 314

    (i) Periods of Colonial History. 314

    (a) 1603–1776. The First Empire and its Disruption

    (b) 1783–1870. The Period of Drift.

    (c) 1870–1895, The Creation of New Colonial Values by Mechanical Transport.

    (d) 1895–1920. Reaction from World Economics to Imperial Economics,

    (ii) The Empire in Alliance. 330

    (iii) The Empire in Trust. 341

    Part VII: The Effect of the Development of Mechanical Transport on British and Irish agriculture 360

    (i) The Effect of the Development of Mechanical Transport on English Agriculture. 361

    (a) 1793–1850. The Victory of the Large Farm. 363

    (b) 1890–1873. The National Market created by the Railway and the Good Years. 370

    (c) 1873–1894. The World Market and American Competition. 371

    (d) 1894–1914. Agricultural Reconstruction and Social Experimentation. 374

    (ii) The Effect of Mechanical Transport on Irish

    Agriculture and the Relations between Great Britain and Ireland. 381

    (a) The attempted Anglicisation of Ireland.

    (b) The Suppression of Competition in Ireland. 1660–1783.

    (c) The Equal Treatment of Great Britain and Ireland. 1801–1870.

    (d) Constructive Policy for Ireland.

    (1){emsp}Improvement of Tenures.

    (2){emsp}Improvement of Methods.

    Conclusion 391

    Appendix 393

    INDEX 404


    L.C.A Knowles