The International People’s Tribunal addressed the many forms of violence during the period of the massacres of 1965–1966 in Indonesia. It was held in The Hague, The Netherlands, in November 2015, to commemorate fifty years since the killings began. The Tribunal, as a people’s court, holds no jurisdiction and was an attempt to achieve symbolic justice for the crimes of 1965.
This book offers new and previously unpublished insights into the types of crimes committed in the 1965 genocide and how these crimes were prosecuted at the International People’s Tribunal for 1965. Divided thematically, each chapter analyses a different crime – enslavement, sexual violence, torture – perpetrated during the Indonesian killings. The contributions consider either general patterns across Indonesia or a particular region of the archipelago. The book reflects on how crimes were charged at the International People’s Tribunal for 1965 and focuses on questions relating to the place of people’s tribunals in truth-seeking and justice claims, and the prospective for transitional justice in contemporary Indonesia.
Positioning the events in Indonesia in 1965 within the broader scope of comparative genocide studies, the book is an original and timely contribution to knowledge about the dynamics of the Indonesian killings. It will be of interest to academics in the field of Asian studies, in particular Southeast Asia, Genocide Studies, Criminology and Criminal Justice and Transitional Justice Studies.
Foreword Retired Justice ZM Yacoob
1. The Indonesian Genocide and the International People’s Tribunal for 1965 Saskia E. Wieringa, Jess Melvin and Annie Pohlman
2. Organisation and Impact of the International People’s Tribunal on 1965 Crimes against Humanity in Indonesia Nursyahbani Katjasungkana and Saskia E. Wieringa
3. How the Military Came to Power Jess Melvin
4. Mass Torture in 1965-66: A Continuing Legacy Galuh Wandita, Indria Fernida and Karen Campbell-Nelson
5. Suharto’s Grievous Human Rights Abuses: The Case of Buru Island Asvi Warman Adam
6. Sexual Slavery, Enforced Prostitution and Forced Marriage as Crimes against Humanity during the Indonesian Killings of 1965-66 Annie Pohlman
7. Persecution through Denial of Citizenship: Indonesians in Forced Exile Post-1965 Ratna Saptari
8. Mass Graves, Memorialisation and Truth-Finding Saskia E. Wieringa
9. Propaganda and Complicity, 1965-66 Adam Hughes Henry
10. What’s in a Name? Naming and Shaming in the Indonesian 1965 Mass Violence Discourse and the IPT65 Sri Lestari Wahyuningroem
11. How Indonesia’s Young Generation Share Their Discovery of a Forgotten Massacre Prodita Sabarani, Ellena Ekarahendy, Ika Krismantari, Febriana Firdaus and Rika Theo
12. The Indonesian Massacres as Genocide Helen Jarvis and Saskia E. Wieringa
Epilogue: The Way Forward Brad Simpson