This edited collection explores the genesis of scientific conceptions of race and their accompanying impact on the taxonomy of human collections internationally as evidenced in ethnographic museums, world fairs, zoological gardens, international colonial exhibitions and ethnic shows. A deep epistemological change took place in Europe in this domain toward the end of the eighteenth century, producing new scientific representations of race and thereby triggering a radical transformation in the visual economy relating to race and racial representation and its inscription in the body. These practices would play defining roles in shaping public consciousness and the representation of “otherness” in modern societies. The Invention of Race provides contextualization that is often lacking in contemporary discussions on diversity, multiculturalism and race.
Introduction: The Invention of Race: Scientific and Popular Representations of Race from Linnaeus to the Ethnic Shows Nicolas Bancel, Thomas David, and Dominic Thomas Part I: The Genealogy of Race in the 18th Century 1. Biologization of Race and Racialization of the Human: Bernier, Buffon, Linnaeus Thierry Hoquet 2. Cranial Varieties in the Human and Orang Utan Species Miriam Claude Meijer 3. The Creation of the "Negro" at the Turn of the Nineteenth Century: Petrus Camper, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, and Julien-Joseph Virey Francesco Panese 4. Panel and Sequence: Classifications and Associations in Scientific Illustrations of the Human Races (1770-1830) Martial Guédron 5. Christoph Meiners’s "New Science" (1747-1810) Britta Rupp-Eisenreich Part II: The Internationalization and Institutionalization of Racial Anthropology in the 19th Century 6. Construction and Circulation of the Notion of "Race" in the Nineteenth Century Carole Reynaud Paligot 7. "We Can’t Help Laughing": Physical Anthropology in Belgium and Congo (1882-1914) Maarten Couttenier 8. Danish Perceptions of Race and Anthropological Science at the Turn of the Twentieth Century Rikke Andreassen 9. Discourses of Race in Imperial Russia (1830s-1914) Vera Tolz 10. The Reception of the Idea of Race in East Asia Gérard Siary 11. The Anthropological Society of Tokyo and the Ainu: Racial Classifications, Prehistory and National Identity (1880-1910) Arnaud Nanta 12. Warfare, Commerce and Science: Racial Biology in South Africa Patrick Harries Part III: The Transcription and Exhibition of Race 13. From Cabinets of Curiosity to the "Hottentot Venus": A Long History of Human Zoos Gilles Boëtsch and Pascal Blanchard 14. Race, Showmen, Disability and the Freak Show Robert Bogdan 15. In Sight and Sound with the Other Senses All Around: Racial Hierarchies at America’s World’s Fairs Robert W. Rydell 16. Human Exhibitions at World’s Fairs: Between Scientific Categorization and Exoticism?: The French Colonial Presence at Midway Plaisance, World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893 Catherine Hodeir 17. Exhibiting Haiti: Questioning Race at the World’s Columbian Exposition, 1893 Charles Forsdick 18. Races on Exhibit at the 1904 St. Louis Anthropology Days Fabrice Delsahut 19. Eskimos in the Museum, Pygmy in a Cage, Social Darwinism Everywhere Herman Lebovics 20. Emile Yung and the African Village at the Swiss National Exhibition in Geneva, 1896 Patrick Minder 21. Beyond Objectivity: Anthropometric Photography and Visual Culture Christian Joschke