The Justices and Injustices of Ecosystem Services: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

The Justices and Injustices of Ecosystem Services

1st Edition

Edited by Thomas Sikor


224 pages | 10 B/W Illus.

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Humankind benefits from a multitude of resources and processes that are supplied by ecosystems, and collectively these benefits are known as ecosystem services. Interest in this topic has grown exponentially over the last decade, as biologists and economists have tried to quantify these benefits to justify management interventions. Yet, as this book demonstrates, the implications for justice and injustice have rarely been explored and works on environmental justice are only now addressing the importance of ecosystem services.

The authors establish important new middle ground in arguments between conservationists and critics of market-based interventions such as Payment for Ecosystem Services. Neither can environmental management be separated from justice concerns, as some conservationists like to believe, nor is it in fundamental opposition to justice, as critics like to put it. The book develops this novel interpretation of justice in environmental management through analyses of prominent governance interventions and the conceptual underpinnings of the ecosystem services framework. Key examples described are revenue-sharing around protected areas and REDD+ for forest ecosystems.

The analyses demonstrate that interventions create opportunities for enhancing social justice, yet also reveal critical design features that cause ostensibly technical interventions to generate injustices.


"The book’s lasting influence will stem from the thorough analysis and evaluation of ecosystem services in light of three dimensions of environmental justice: distribution; participation; and recognition … This book provides a sturdy platform for taking the right course of action."Crosslands Bulletin

"The authors of this book are social scientists describing and convincingly criticizing various types of ecosystem services-based government interventions… I would certainly recommend it to all sorts of readers" - Frederik H. Kistenkas, Wageningen University, in Ecosystem Services journal

Table of Contents

1. Introduction: Linking Ecosystem Services with Environmental Justice

Thomas Sikor

Part 1: Ecosystem Services-based Governance Interventions

2. Justice Implications of Conditionality in Payments for Ecosystem Services: a Case Study from Uganda

Janet Fisher

3. REDD+: Justice Effects of Technical Design

Thomas Sikor

4. Just Conservation? On the Fairness of Sharing Benefits

Adrian Martin, Anne Akol and Jon Phillips

5. Basin Justice: Using Social Justice to address Gaps in River Basin Management

Mark Zeitoun and Karis McLaughlin

Part 2: The Ecosystem Services Framework

6. Environmentalisms, Justices and the Limits of Ecosystem Services Frameworks

Sharachchandra Lele

7. Health, Environment and the Ecosystem Services Framework: A Justice Critique

Roger Few

8. A Justice Critique of Environmental Valuation for Ecosystem Governance

Eneko Garmendia and Unai Pascual

9. The Justices and Injustices of Ecosystem Services

Thomas Sikor, Janet Fisher, Roger Few, Adrian Martin and Mark Zeitoun

About the Editor

Thomas Sikor is Professor of Environment and Development at the University of East Anglia, UK.

About the Series

Routledge Studies in Ecosystem Services

Authors or editors of potential new titles should contact Hannah Ferguson, Editor (

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Environmental Economics
LAW / Environmental
NATURE / Environmental Conservation & Protection
NATURE / Ecosystems & Habitats / General
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Ecology
SOCIAL SCIENCE / Human Geography