The Lean Approach to Digital Transformation : From Customer to Code and From Code to Customer book cover
1st Edition

The Lean Approach to Digital Transformation
From Customer to Code and From Code to Customer

ISBN 9781032225012
Published May 6, 2022 by Productivity Press
256 Pages 15 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

The Lean Approach to Digital Transformation: From Customer to Code and From Code to Customer is organized into three parts that expose and develop the three capabilities that are essential for a successful digital transformation:

1. Understanding how to co-create digital services with users, whether they are customers or future customers. This ability combines observation, dialogue, and iterative experimentation. The approach proposed in this book is based on the Lean Startup approach, according to an extended vision that combines Design Thinking and Growth Hacking. Companies must become truly "customer-centric", from observation and listening to co-development. The revolution of the digital age of the 21st century is that customer orientation is more imperative -- the era of abundance, usages rate of change, complexity of experiences, and shift of power towards communities -- are easier, using digital tools and digital communities.

2. Developing an information system (IS) that is the backbone of the digital transformation – called “exponential information system” to designate an open IS (in particular on its borders), capable of interfacing and combining with external services, positioned as a player in software ecosystems and built for processing scalable and dynamic data flows. The exponential information system is constantly changing and it continuously absorbs the best of information processing technology, such as Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning.

3. Building software “micro-factories” that produce service platforms, which are called “Lean software factories.” This “software factory” concept covers the integration of agile methods, tooling and continuous integration and deployment practices, a customer-oriented product approach, and a platform approach based on modularity, as well as API-based architecture and openness to external stakeholders. This software micro-factory is the foundation that continuously produces and provides constantly evolving services.

These three capabilities are not unique or specific to this book, they are linked to other concepts such as agile methods, product development according to lean principles, software production approaches such as CICD (continuous integration and deployment) or DevOps. This book weaves a common frame of reference for all these approaches to derive more value from the digital transformation and to facilitate its implementation.

The title of the book refers to the “lean approach to digital transformation” because the two underlying frameworks, Lean Startup and Lean Software Factory, are directly inspired by Lean, in the sense of the Toyota Way. The Lean approach is present from the beginning to the end of this book -- it provides the framework for customer orientation and the love of a job well done, which are the conditions for the success of a digital transformation.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


1. Digital transformation

2. From customer to code and from code to customer

3. Three capabilities for success

4. Intended Book Audience

5. Plan

4.1. Part One: Digital Transformation

4.2. Part Two: The Exponential Information System

4.3. Part 3: Software platforms and service factories

Part 1: Digital transformation: Customer orientation and homeostasis

Chapter 1

1.1 "Markets are conversations

1.1.1 The economy of attention

1.1.2 Conversations and content strategy

1.1.3 Each customer is unique

1.1.4 The economy of intention

1.2 "The customer is the architect of his experience

1.2.1 Customer experience as the focus of the digital strategy

1.2.2 Co-construction with users

1.2.3 Products, services and ecosystems

1.2.4 The obsession with the customer's time

1.3 Reinventing products in a digital world

1.3.1 Digital products and digital production

1.3.2 Continuous product discovery

1.3.3 Knowledge engineering

1.3.4 The role of objects in the materialization of services

1.4 Producing in a digital world

1.4.1 The ambition of Digital Manufacturing

1.4.2 Artificial intelligence as a complexity absorber

1.4.3 Augmented humans and augmented environment

1.4.4 Optimize with the "digital twin"


Chapter 2

2.1 Digital homeostasis

2.1.1 Change comes from the customer

2.1.2 Accelerating change, from uses to technologies

2.1.3 The multitude is an opportunity

2.1.4 The "letting go" of digital transformation

2.2 Anticipation and agility

2.2.1 Situational potential and anticipation

2.2.2 Short time and long time

2.2.3 Cultivating innovation

2.2.4 Customer orientation as a compass

2.3 Scalable organizations adapted to continuous change

2.3.1 Exponential Organizations (ExO)

2.3.2 Networks of autonomous teams

2.3.3 Enterprise 3.0

2.3.4 Continuous learning

2.4 Culture Change and Change Management

2.4.1 Which change for a digital transformation?

2.4.2 Resistance to change

2.4.3 Motivation and commitment

2.4.4 A culture "without borders


Chapter 3

3.1 Innovation in the digital world

3.1.1 Innovation is about execution

3.1.2 Innovation requires iteration

3.1.3 The business model is an outcome, not a prerequisite

3.1.4 The playing field is determined by the skills

3.2 Lean Startup: formalizing the knowledge creation process

3.2.1 A machine for validating insights

3.2.2 Three steps: Design, Pretotype & Grow

3.2.3 Running Lean: Keeping the Promise

3.2.4 "Nail It then Scale It "

3.3 Design thinking and Minimum Viable Product

3.3.1 Design, observation, anthropology

3.3.2 Design thinking

3.3.3 Minimum Viable Product

3.3.4 User Experience Design

3.4 Growth Hacking

3.4.1 AARRR metrics and data-driven steering

3.4.2 Product Market Fit: finding traction

3.4.3 To create a community of regular users

3.4.4 The CFLL learning loop


Part II: Exponential information systems

Chapter 4

4.1 Exponential information systems

4.1.1 Which IT for an exponential organization?

4.1.2 Outdoor to indoor steering

4.1.3 An IS open to the continuous flow of technologies

4.1.4 An anti-fragile information system

4.2 Information systems and perpetual change

4.2.1 Multimodal architecture

4.2.2 The system as an executable specification

4.2.3 Reactive systems

4.2.4 Rules, reflexes and automation

4.3 Managing complexity and technical debt

4.3.1 IS complexity and inertia

4.3.2 Minimize the size of the information system

4.3.3 Manage your technical debt

4.4 Resilience and Quality of Service

4.4.1 Site Reliability Engineering

4.4.2 Automation and monitoring

4.4.3 SRE practices


Chapter 5

5.1 Taking advantage of "exponential technologies"

5.1.1 The toolbox and opportunities

5.1.2 The deep learning revolution

5.1.3 Hybridization and meta-heuristics

5.1.4 Reinventing processes and products with AI

5.2 Conditions of implementation

5.2.1 The data engineering process

5.2.2 Build a circular learning flow

5.2.3 Data lab culture

5.3 Impact on the information system

5.3.1 Data architecture

5.3.2 Data Infrastructure

5.3.3 An information system designed for experimentation


Chapter 6

6.1 Lean & agile governance

6.1.1 Agile Software Development

6.1.2 Adding lean roots to agile practice

6.1.3 The systemic conditions of lean & agile

6.1.4 Governance that favors the lean & agile approach

6.2 Which architecture in an uncertain world?

6.2.1 The role of the architect in an agile team

6.2.2 Architecture and gardening

6.2.3 Continuous learning of systems engineering

6.3 Sustainable information systems

6.3.1 Sustainable development of the IS

6.3.2 Managing complexity in a sustainable way

6.3.3 Controlling the age of systems through flows


Part III: Software platforms and service factories

Chapter 7

7.1 Automate the software process

7.1.1 Automate for more quality and efficiency

7.1.2 Continuous integration

7.1.3 Continuous deployment

7.1.4 Automate the tests

7.2 DevOps

7.2.1 A cross-functional team to implement CICD

7.2.2 "Infrastructure as code"

7.2.3 Results of the "early adopters"

7.3 "Lean Software Factory

7.3.1 The metaphor of the lean software factory

7.3.2 The twelve principles of LSF

7.3.3 A lean factory for learning

7.3.4 Software Craftmanship

7.3.5 From customer to code and from code to customer


Chapter 8

8.1 The platform approach

8.1.1 Which platforms for the digital domain?

8.1.2 The network effect of platforms

8.1.3 Platform and communities

8.2 The power of platforms

8.2.1 Innovation platforms

8.2.3 Platforms and artificial intelligence

8.3 Building stable platforms to deliver changing services

8.3.1 The "product platform" approach in the digital context

8.3.2 Platforms, architecture and emergence

8.3.3 Platforms and software factories



1. The necessary success of digital transformation

2. The main thing to remember

3. The necessary change inour companies’ culture

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Yves Caseau has been the Director of Information Systems for the Michelin Group since October 2017. He was previously the Digital Director of the AXA Group, in charge of the development of innovative digital applications and IT coordination in the digital domain. He was Deputy CEO of Technologies, Services and Innovation of Bouygues Telecom from 2007 to 2013, in particular in charge of the development of new products for the fixed network. He was the CIO (Director of Information Systems) of Bouygues Telecom from 2001 to 2006. He taught the course “Theory and practice of information systems” at Polytechnique and frequently speaks as a guest speaker on architecture. information systems. Yves devoted the first part of his scientific career - which began at the "Marcoussis Laboratories" of Alcatel-Alstom - to software engineering, object programming, and artificial intelligence. He then turned to research operations in the 1990s at Telcordia (USA) then in the Bouygues Group, which he joined in 1994. A former student of ENS (Ulm), Yves Caseau holds a doctorate and an authorization to supervise research in computer science (Paris XI and Paris VII), as well as an MBA from the College of Engineers. He is a member of the Academy of Technologies and author of three books at Dunod: "Urbanization, BPM and SOA" (2005), "Performance of the Information System" (2007), and "Process and Enterprise 2.0" (2011).