1st Edition

The March on Rome Violence and the Rise of Italian Fascism

By Giulia Albanese Copyright 2019
    210 Pages
    by Routledge

    210 Pages
    by Routledge

    The aim of this book is to reconstruct the violent nature of the March on Rome and to emphasise its significance in demarcating a real break in the country's history and the beginning of the Fascist dictatorship. This aspect of the March has long been obscured: first by the Fascists' celebratory project, and then by the ironic and reductive interpretation of the event put forward by anti-Fascists.

    This volume focuses on the role and purpose of Fascist political violence from its origins. In doing so, it highlights the conflictual nature of the March by illustrating the violent impact it had on Italian institutions as well as the importance of a debate on this political turning point in Italy and beyond. The volume also examines how the event crucially contributed to the construction of a dictatorial political regime in Italy in the weeks following Mussolini's appointment as head of the government.

    Originally published in Italian, this book fills a notable gap in current critical discussion surrounding the March in the English language.





    1. The Coup d'État Policy

    Seditious plans

    The Fiume exploit

    From Fiume to Rome?


    2. Political violence

    The struggle for the local hegemony

    The anniversary policy

    Strategies for violence and seizing power

    The general strike and its aftermath


    3. Towards the March

    Talk of a coup

    Organising the March

    Defending the State


    4. The March on Rome

    "It’s pouring": the Fascist mobilisation

    The revoking of the state of siege

    The fascists in Bologna

    The appointing of Mussolini



    5. The March after the March

    Paper battles

    A 'typically Italian revolution': Diplomacy and the March on Rome

    The 'bivouac speech' and the parliamentary debate

    Army reports

    The first official representation


    6. A Year of Fascist Domination

    Violence and public order

    The transformation of the State

    Time to draw a balance





    Giulia Albanese is Associate Professor at the University of Padua. Her research focuses on the origins of Fascism, political violence and authoritarian cultures in the interwar years. Her previous books include Dittature mediterranee. Sovversioni fasciste e colpi di stato in Italia, Spagna, Portogallo (2016). With Roberta Pergher, she edited In the Society of Fascists: Acclamation, Acquiescence and Agency in Mussolini’s Italy (2012).

    "It is all very well guffawing when Donald Trump is portrayed as Il Douche.

    But the actual Duce, Benito Mussolini, was the first modern European dictator, the first fascist and the first totalitarian. His career is worth examining at least as seriously as that of his junior and sometime admirer, Adolf Hitler. How excellent, then, that we now have a solid translation of Giulia Albanese’s detailed study of Mussolini’s accession to power in the so-called March on Rome, part paramilitary coup and part politicians’ backstairs deal. What Albanese starkly underlines is how violent Fascists were from start to finish and therefore how likely it was that, once in office, Mussolini would establish a tyranny for a generation."

    - R.J.B. Bosworth, Jesus College, Oxford.


    "In this timely and important book, Giulia Albanese forces us to rethink the basis of Fascist rule. Mussolini was far from being simply a showman or a wily operator. The March on Rome demonstrates powerfully that Mussolini’s regime was a dictatorship, with violence at its core, from the very beginning."

    - Roberta Pergher, Indiana University.