The Medieval Roots of Antisemitism
Continuities and Discontinuities from the Middle Ages to the Present Day
This book presents a fresh approach to the question of the historical continuities and discontinuities of Jew-hatred, juxtaposing chapters dealing with the same phenomenon – one in the pre-modern, one in the modern period. How do the circumstances of interreligious violence differ in pre-Reformation Europe, the modern Muslim world, and the modern Western world? In addition to the diachronic comparison, most chapters deal with the significance of religion for the formation of anti-Jewish stereotypes. The direct dialogue of small-scale studies bridging the chronological gap brings out important nuances: anti-Zionist texts appropriating medieval ritual murder accusations; modern-day pogroms triggered by contemporary events but fuelled by medieval prejudices; and contemporary stickers drawing upon long-inherited knowledge about what a "Jew" looks like. These interconnections, however, differ from the often-assumed straightforward continuities between medieval and modern anti-Jewish hatred. The book brings together many of the most distinguished scholars of this field, creating a unique dialogue between historical periods and academic disciplines.
Table of Contents
Introduction 1. Volcanic Archives: Towards a Direct Comparison of Pre-Modern and Modern Forms of Antisemitism Jonathan Adams and Cordelia Heß Part I: Longest Hatred versus Invented Tradition 2. The Medieval (and Ancient) Roots of Antisemitism Steven Englund 3. The Making of Antisemitism in Nineteenth-Century Europe as an Invention of Tradition Ulrich Wyrwa 4. What is Antisemitism Like?: An Analogical Approach Brian Klug Part II: Antisemitism Without Jews 5. Reception of Medieval European Anti-Jewish Concepts in Late Medieval and Early Modern Norway Yvonne Friedman 6. The Imitation Game?: Japanese Attitudes Towards Jews in Modern Times Rotem Kowner Part III: Christianity and Antisemitism 7. The Role of Medieval Northern Europe in Generating Virulent Anti-Jewish Imagery Robert Chazan 8. Between Anti- and Another Modernity: Anti-Judaism, the Imaginary Jew, and Catholic Antisemitism in Fin-de-Siècle Poland (1880–1914) Grzegorz Krzywiec 9. The Gospel According to Gibson: Medieval Passion Plays, a Mean-Spirited Nun, and What One Movie Can Tell Us about Jewish-Christian Relations at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century Jonathan Adams Part IV: Islam and Antisemitism 10. Narrating Antisemitism in Historical and Contemporary Turkey Behruz Davletov and Tahir Abbas 11. Arab Antisemitic Discourse: Importation, Internalisation, and Recycling Esther Webman Part V: Bodies, Gender, and Antisemitism 12. What’s in a Nose? The Origins, Development, and Influence of Medieval Anti-Jewish Caricature Sara Lipton 13. Jewish Bodies in Postcards and Street Art: Changes in Anti-Jewish Visual Polemics Isabel Enzenbach 14. Masculinities, Carnal Israel, and Antisemitisms Victor Seidler Part VI: Blood Libel and Ritual Murder Allegations 15. The Ritual Murder Accusation as Medieval Invention: Linking Libels and Boy Martyrs Miriamne Ara Krummel 16. Norwich 1144: Origins and Afterlives Miri Rubin 17. A Rational Model for Blood Libel: The Aftonbladet Affair Jonathan Adams and Cordelia Heß Part VII: Neighbours 18. "...and order was upset": Easter, the Eucharist, and the Jews of Prague, 1389 Milan Žonca 19. Towards 1391: The Anti-Jewish Preaching of Ferrán Martínez in Seville Maya Soifer Irish 20. "The Present Causes of Past Effects": The Background Beliefs of the Kielce Pogrom (4 July 1946) Joanna Tokarska-Bakir Part VIII: Economy and Finance 21. Jewish Usurers, Blood Libel, and the Second-Hand Economy: The Medieval Origins of a Stereotype (from the Thirteenth to the Fifteenth Century) Giacomo Todeschini 22. The Deeper the Roots, the Deadlier the Antisemitism?: Comparing Images of Jewish Financial Control in Modern Germany and the United States Richard E. Frankel Part IX: Land and Home 23. The Theology of the Land in Jewish-Christian Relations and its Role in Misunderstandings Between Jews and Christians Jesper Svartvik 24. Yearning for Zion in Jewish Tradition Ruth Langer 25. Between Eternity and Wandering: The Anti-Jewish Discourse on the Wandering Jew in the Long Nineteenth Century in Germany and Austria Tuvia Singer Part X: Medieval Roots and Anti-Judaism 26. Europe, Christianity, Violence, and Jew-Hatred Victor Seidler 27. Postface Carlo Ginzburg 28. Which Past for Which Present?: A Reply to Carlo Ginzburg’s "Postface" on Anti-Judaism David Nirenberg
Jonathan Adams is a researcher for the Royal Swedish Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities, and docent in the Department of Scandinavian Languages at Uppsala University.
Cordelia Heß is Senior Lecturer at the Department of Historical Studies, University of Gothenburg.