Published each year since 1959, The Military Balance is an indispensable reference to the capabilities of armed forces across the globe. It is used by academia, the media, armed forces, the private sector and government. It is an open-source assessment of the military forces and equipment inventories of 171 countries, with accompanying defence economics and procurement data. Alongside detailed country data, The Military Balance assesses important defence issues, by region, as well as key global trends, such as in defence technology and equipment modernisation. This analysis is accompanied by full-colour graphics, including maps and illustrations. With extensive explanatory notes and reference information, The Military Balance is as straightforward to use as it is extensive. The 2022 edition is accompanied by a fullcolour wall chart illustrating security dynamics in the Arctic.

    Indexes of Tables, Figures and Maps 4

    Editor’s Introduction 5

    Part One: Capabilities, Trends and Economics

    Chapter 1

    Domain trends 7

    Defence budgets and expenditure 9

    Tracked self-propelled artillery: selected current and nextgeneration systems 11

    Amphibious ship programmes and capabilities 12

    In-service or in-development bomber aircraft 13

    Chapter 2

    Defence and military analysis 14

    Defence intelligence: Maintaining relevance in the open-source era 14

    Simulation and defence: Training benefits and trends 18

    Military adaptation to climate change: Reducing emissions and maintaining military effectiveness 23

    Chapter 3

    North America 26

    Regional trends in 2021 26

    Arms procurements and deliveries 42

    United States: defence policy and economics 28

    Armed forces data section 45 Canada: defence policy 40

    Chapter 4

    Europe 64

    Regional trends in 2021 64

    United Kingdom: defence policy 79

    Regional defence policy and economics 66

    Arms procurements and deliveries 83

    Spain: defence policy and economics 76

    Armed forces data section 86

    Chapter 5

    Russia and Eurasia 164

    Regional trends in 2021 164

    Arms procurements and deliveries 178

    Russia: defence policy and economics 166

    Armed forces data section 181 Armenia: defence policy and economics 175

    Chapter 6

    Asia 218

    Regional trends in 2021 218

    Arms procurements and deliveries 244

    Regional defence policy and economics 220

    Armed forces data section 247 China: defence policy and economics 233

    Chapter 7

    Middle East and North Africa 318

    Regional trends in 2021 318

    Arms procurements and deliveries 329

    Regional defence policy and economics 320

    Armed forces data section 332 Israel: defence policy 327

    Chapter 8

    Latin America and the Caribbean 378

    Regional trends in 2021 378

    Arms procurements and deliveries 390

    Regional defence policy and economics 380

    Armed forces data section 392

    Colombia: defence policy and economics 387

    Chapter 9

    Sub-Saharan Africa 436

    Regional trends in 2021 436

    South Africa: defence policy 444

    West Africa: defence policy 438

    Regional defence economics 445

    East Africa: defence policy 440

    Arms procurements and deliveries 450

    Central and Southern Africa: defence policy 443

    Armed forces data section 452

    Chapter 10

    Military cyber capabilities 507

    Part Two Reference

    Explanatory notes 511

    Principal land definitions 515

    Principal naval definitions 516

    Principal aviation definitions 517

    List of abbreviations for data sections 519

    International comparisons of defence expenditure and military personnel 521

    Index of country/territory abbreviations 527

    Index of countries and territories 528


    The International Institute for Strategic Studies is an independent centre for research, information and debate on the problems of conflict, however caused, that have, or potentially have, an important military content. The staff of the Institute is international in composition and IISS work is international in its perspective and reach. The Institute is independent and stresses rigorous fact-based research with a forward-looking policy orientation that can improve wider public understanding of international security problems and influence the development of sounder public policy, and more effective business decisions in the international arena.