The Modern Theory of the Toyota Production System: A Systems Inquiry of the World’s Most Emulated and Profitable Management System, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

The Modern Theory of the Toyota Production System

A Systems Inquiry of the World’s Most Emulated and Profitable Management System, 1st Edition

By Phillip Marksberry

Productivity Press

451 pages | 265 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2012-11-27
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Description

Numerous books have been written about Toyota's approach to workplace improvement; however, most describe Toyota's practices as case studies or stories. Designed to aid in the implementation of Lean manufacturing, The Modern Theory of the Toyota Production System: A Systems Inquiry of the World’s Most Emulated and Profitable Management System explains that your organization already has what it takes to succeed with TPS and what’s probably missing is balance.

Bridging the gap between implementation and theory, this text is the first of its kind to use systems theory to study how the pieces of the Toyota Production System (TPS) work together to achieve this much needed balance. Lean practitioners will learn how to use system theory to improve overall decision making when applying Lean or Toyota-like management systems.

Explaining that the glue that holds the pieces of TPS together is just as important as the pieces themselves, the book provides you with invaluable guidance in the implementation of Lean manufacturing from a management perspective. Itoutlines a blueprint to help you develop a clear understanding of how the pieces of TPS need to come together so you can achieve something greater than what’s possible with the individual pieces.

Reviews

Dr. Marksberry looks at TPS in the context of organizational behavior, social sciences, management science, and engineering sciences. He presents new insights into how the elements of TPS work together as a system across an organization. Both scholars and practitioners of TPS and Lean Manufacturing will find this book to be thought provoking and revealing about how successful TPS operates.

Larry Holloway, Professor and Chair of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kentucky

Table of Contents

Systems Theory and the Relation to TPS

Why Systems Theory for the Toyota Production System?

Why Systems Thinking Is Not Popular When Implementing TPS

Systems Theory Background

A Representation of Toyota’s TPS System Properties

Holism and Roles

Goal Seeking, Industrial Engineering, and Problem Solving

Regulation and Jishuken

Differentiation and Leadership

Hierarchy and Hoshin Kanri

Transformation, Change Management, and Kaizen

Entropy and Human Resources

Negative Entropy and Organizational Learning

Requisite of Variety and Production Leveling

Interrelationships and Supplier Development

Equifinality, Multifinality, and Maintenance

Summary

References

The Property of Holism in TPS

System Property: Holism

Holism and the Toyota Production System

The Role Concept

The Difference between Roles and Job Descriptions

Role Prescriptions

Role Theory and Analysis

Role Components and Features

The Emergent Properties of TPS: Teamwork

The Emergent Properties of TPS: Collaboration and Trust among Members

The Emergent Properties of TPS: Workplace Consistency

Summary

References

The Property of Goal Seeking in TPS, Part 1

System Property: Goal Seeking

Goal-Seeking Properties of the Toyota Production System

Background: TPS and the Industrial Engineering Connection

The Role of Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering Theory

Literature Review of Industrial Engineering Methods

The Scientific Management Era

Skill Sets of Industrial Engineers in the Era of Scientific Management

Skill Set: Scientific Method

Skill Set: Importance of Direct Observation

Skill Set: Work Sampling

Skill Set: Questioning Attitude

Skill Set: Standardization

Skill Set: Standards Engineer

Skill Set: Systems Thinking

Skill Set: The Process Flowchart

Skill Set: Work Distribution Charts

Skill Set: Time Study

Skill Set: Testing, Adaptive One Factor at a Time

Contemporary Industrial Engineering

Skill Sets of Contemporary Industrial Engineering

Skill Set: Systems Engineering and Optimization

Skill Set: Process Design and Reengineering

Skill Set: Experimental Design, Design of Experiments, Taguchi Methods

Skill Set: Six Sigma

Skill Set: Lean Sigma

Literature Review Summary

What Type of Industrial Engineering Identity Is TPS?

Differences between TPS, the Efficiency Expert, and Traditional Lean

Adapting Scientific Management to TPS and the Comparison to Contemporary IE

Standardization or Kaizen (Business Process Reengineering)?

Knowledge by Observation (Genchi Genbutsu) or by Inference (Data)?

Scientific Method or System Optimization?

Summary

References

The Property of Goal Seeking in TPS, Part 2

Problem Solving: The Identity of the Toyota Production System

Problem Solving versus Kaizen (Improvement)

Structured Problem Solving

Toyota’s Eight-Step Problem-Solving Methodology

Human Problem-Solving Background

Literature Review of Problem-Solving Methodologies

Limitations with Problem-Solving Methodology Research

Problem-Solving Theory and Core Thinking Skills

Criteria for Evaluating Effective Cognitive Processes

Applying Human Problem-Solving Theory to Toyota’s Eight-Step Process

Goal Clarity in A3 Thinking

Productive Thinking in A3 Thinking

Putting It All Together

Summary

References

The System Property of Regulation in TPS

System Property: Regulation

The System Property of Regulation and the Toyota Production System

Literature Review of Jishukens

Literature Review of Quality Circles

Using Quality Circles and Jishukens to Create a Shared Vision

The Weakening and Strengthening of TPS using Shared Visions

The Regulation Cycle of TPS

Jishuken and Quality Circle Implementation Concepts

Asking for Help and Promoting Waste Elimination

Starting Point for Workplace Improvement

The Team Structure of Jishukens and Quality Circles

Support Functions in QCs and Jishukens

Coach and Facilitate Problem Solving

Jishukens and QCs Must Advance Stability through Standardization

Model the Company’s Approach to Work

Summary

References

The System Property of Differentiation in TPS

System Property: Differentiation

Toyota Production System and System Differentiation

Literature Review of Leadership

The Distinction between Management and Leadership

Literature Review of Leadership Theory

Leadership Theory for TPS

The Why Function of TPS Leadership

The How Function of TPS Leadership

What If Leadership Is Not on Board with Defining, Coaching, or Implementing Lean?

The Where Function of TPS Leadership

The When Function of TPS Leadership

Summary

References

The System Property of Hierarchies in TPS

System Property: Hierarchy

The Hierarchical Property of the Toyota Production System

Decision Making in Hierarchies

Vertical Decision Making

Horizontal Decision Making

Interdependent Decision Making

Interdependent Performance

Monitoring and Progress

Routine Work and Nonroutine Work in Hoshin

Literature Review of Strategic Planning

Problems and Challenges in Strategic Planning

Strategic Planning Theories

A System of Hierarchies: The Hoshin Process

Planning Phase of Hoshin

Preparation Phase of Hoshin

Hoshin Implementation Phase

Hoshin Evaluation

End-of-Year Evaluation

A Theoretical Interpretation of Hoshin

Summary

References

The System Property of Transformation in TPS

System Property: Transformation

The Conversion Process in the Toyota Production System

Literature Review of Change Management

Conversion Process: Ingestor

Conversion Process: Motor

Conversion Process: Converter

Conversion Process: Producer

Conversion Process: Supporter

Conversion Process: Distributor

Conversion Process: Matter–Energy Storage

Summary

References

The System Property of Entropy in TPS

System Property: Entropy

Entropy in Organizations

Entropy in the Toyota Production System

Japanese Management Techniques in Human Resources

Japanese Management Practices and Toyota

Minimizing Entropy Using the Human Resource Function in TPS

Hygiene Theory and TPS: The Essential Needs of the Individual

Stable Employee Relations

Fair Appraisal and Treatment

Improve the Terms and Conditions of Employment

Workplace Communication

Motivation Theory and TPS: The Intrinsic Needs of the Individual

Decision Making

Teamwork

Workplace Competence

Summary

References

The System Property of Reversibility in TPS

System Property: Reversibility

Minimizing Entropy in the Management and Labor Relationship (Reversibility)

Literature Review: The Birth of the Toyota Production System as a Union

The Role of Trade Unions and the Human Resource Function in the United States

The Use of Lean in Human Resource Development

A Difficult Implementation of Lean in Union Environments in the United States

Union Problems and Lean Production in the Automotive Industry

A Successful Case of Lean Production in the Automotive Sector in a Union Environment

The Influence of Labor Unions in Japan on Lean Production

Internal Reversibility in TPS: A Union Perspective

Larger Employment Issues

External Reversibility in TPS: A Union Perspective

Summary

References

The System Property of Negative Entropy in TPS

System Property: Negative Entropy

Negative Entropy and the Toyota Production System

Exceptional Creativity, Mundane Creativity, and Lifelong Learning

Organizational Learning and Communication: Some Basic Similarities with TPS

Literature Review of Organizational Learning and Communication

Organizational Learning Theory

Connecting the Kaizen Mind

The Preferred Learning and Communication Style for the Kaizen Mind

Summary

References

The System Property of Requisite Variety in TPS

System Property: Requisite Variety

A Theoretical Response to Complexity and Variety

Toyota Production System and the Law of Requisite Variety

Literature Review: Production Leveling

The Technical and Social Structures of Production Leveling

Technical System: Prevention

Technical System: Reactive

Social System: Prevention

Social System: Reaction

Summary

References

The System Properties of Interrelationship and Interdependence in TPS

System Properties: Interrelationship and Interdependence

Interrelationship and Interdependence in the Toyota Production System

A Review of Toyota’s Supplier Development Practices

Building Positive and Interdependent Structures in TPS

Summary

References

The System Property of Equifinality in TPS

System Property: Equifinality and Multifinality

The System Property of Equifinality for a Management System

The System Property of Equifinality for Non-Value-Added Work Environments

Literature Review

The TPS Goal in Facilities Maintenance

The Tenants of Waste Elimination in Maintenance

Establishing Normal Work in Unknown and Nonroutine Work Environments

Fewer Higher-Skilled Employees

Seibi: Starting Point for Equipment and Maintenance Standards

Improving Equipment Availability Using Problem Solving

Summary

References

Summary

Systems Theory and the Modern Theory

Management System Properties Can Be Satisfied in Many Ways

Organizing the Properties of TPS for Implementation

Timing and Pace

How Do You Know When the Modern Theory of TPS Is Working?

About the Author

Dr. Phillip Marksberry is the vice president of engineering and quality for American LaFrance, a custom manufacturer of emergency vehicles and modern fire engines. He received his BS in mechanical engineering at the University of Kentucky in 1997 and became board certified as a professional engineer in 2001. In 2000, he received his master’s degree in business management at Brescia University and in 2004 his PhD in mechanical engineering at the University of Kentucky. Dr. Marksberry has more than 20 years experience working in the automotive industry and holds several patents in metal cutting and product design. He has also held roles in production engineering, product design, industrial engineering, and operations. Prior to American LaFrance, he was a faculty member of the College of Engineering, with a joint appointment in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Center for Manufacturing. Dr. Marksberry has published over 30 technical journal articles and has been a member of various technical societies.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUS053000
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Quality Control
TEC016000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Design / General
TEC020000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Manufacturing