The worlds developing countries will be experiencing massive increases in their urban populations over the 21st century. If managed intelligently and humanely, this growth can pave the way to sustainable development; otherwise, it will favour higher levels of poverty and environmental stress. The outcome depends on decisions being made now. The principal theme that runs through this volume is the need to transform urbanization into a positive force for development. Part I of this book reviews the demography of the urban transition, stressing the importance of benefi cial rural-urban connections and challenging commonly held misconceptions. Part II asks how urban housing, land and service provision can be improved in the face of rapid urban expansion, drawing lessons from experiences around the world. Part III analyses the challenges and opportunities that urbanization presents for improving living environments and reducing pressures on local and global ecosystems. These social and environmental challenges must be met in the context of fast-changing demographic circumstances; Part IV explores the range of opportunities that these transformations represent. These challenges and opportunities vary greatly across Africa, Asia and Latin America, as detailed in Part V. Published with IIED and UNFPA
Table of Contents
Introduction * Part I: Urban Transitions * The Demography of the Urban Transition: What We Know and Don t Know * Urbanization, Poverty and Inequity: Is Rural-Urban Migration a Poverty Problem, or Part of the Solution? * Demographic and Urban Transitions in a Global System and Policy Responses * Part II: Shelter and Urban Poverty * Land and Services for the Urban Poor in Rapidly Urbanizing Countries * Informality and Poverty in Latin American Urban Policies * Preparing for Urban Expansion: A Proposed Strategy for Intermediate Cities in Ecuador * Organizations of the Urban Poor and Equitable Urban Development: Process and Product * Part III: The Social and Sustainable Use of Space * Urban Sustainability and Global Environmental Change: Reflections for an Urban Agenda * Risks of Climate Change for Urban Settlements in Low Elevation Coastal Zones * Urbanization and Ecosystems: Current Patterns and Future Implications * Urban Sprawl: A Challenge for Sustainability * Part IV: The Changing Face of Urban Demography and its Challenges * Notes on Urban-Rural Poverty Projections and the Role of Migration * Women‘s Empowerment and Gender Equality in Urban Settings: New Vulnerabilities and Opportunities * Young People in an Urban World * Urbanization and Ageing in Developing Countries * Confronting Urbanization and the AIDS Epidemic: A Double-Edged Sword * Providing Information for Social Progress in Urban Areas * Part V: Regional Patterns of Urbanization and Linkages to Development * African Urbanization: Recent Trends and Implications * Socioeconomic Heterogeneity in Urban India * The Urban Transition in China: Trends, Consequences and Policy Implications * Urbanization in Latin America and the Caribbean: Experiences and Lessons Learned * Index
George Martine is lead author of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) report State of World Population 2007: Unleashing the Potential of Urban Growth, and a consultant in Brazil. Gordon McGranahan is the Head of the Human Settlements Group at the IIED. Mark Montgomery is a professor of economics at Stony Brook University, New York, and a senior associate at the Population Council. Rogelio Fernandez-Castilla is former Director of the Technical Support Division (TSD) of UNFPA.
'This remarkable book convincingly challenges urban misconceptions about such issues as growth, poverty and the environment, and uses compelling evidence-based arguments to demonstrate why urbanization is the most important 21st century priority. Its ambitious, comprehensive scope ... ensures that it will become an indispensable classic for policymakers, practitioners and academics.' Caroline Moser, Director, Global Urban Research Centre, Manchester University 'Too many policymakers fear our urban future, seeing only slums and strife. With the help of this excellent and timely volume, they should look again, and they may see a fast-disappearing historic opportunity: well-managed urban growth has the potential to provide more solutions than problems.' Billy Cobbett, Manager of Cities Alliance 'We need to recognize the centrality of urbanization's challenges and their overwhelming impacts, especially in poorer countries ... This book helps overcome national and international resistance to this agenda and, more importantly, indicates alternative approaches that serve to dispel our puzzlement at this gigantic challenge.' Erminia Maricato, Former Undersecretary, Ministry of Cities, Brazil