1st Edition

The New World of Work People Leadership in The Digital Age

    248 Pages 25 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    248 Pages 25 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    Arguing that a functional approach to Human Resource Management is fast becoming obsolete, this book explores the many areas of accelerated change in the workplace and how business leaders must evolve their thinking to meet the needs of their workers and managers alike.

    With a clear focus on the accelerations caused by Covid-19 and how technological platforms have enabled working practices and business continuity, the book effectively lays the groundwork for a changed but well-functioning people management system. The authors present the new model of Strategic Human Asset Lifecycle Management that incorporates the drastic changes in how jobs are designed, how human talent is acquired, how work is performed, how work is rewarded and conditions set, and crucially, how labor laws must change – all to meet the fast-moving requirements of a digitized world.

    Enriched with cases that illustrate both well-adapted and badly-adapted organizations, as well as helpful summaries and thought-provoking challenges, this book is an essential resource for all those who aspire to great people leadership in their organizations, including HR professionals, instructors, and upper-level students.

    Chapter 1: History of Human Capital Management

    Dr. Bashker Biswas

    The Industrial Revolution and the History of Labor Management

    Personnel Management

    Human Resource Management

    Human Capital Management

    A Company’s Most Valuable Asset

    Accounting for Intangibles – From Human Resource to Human Capital

    Vast Improvements in Productivity Due to The People

    Fleeting Intangible Assets and the Need for Retention

    Chapter 2: The Changing Nature of Work

    Dr. Bashker Biswas

    The Changing Nature of Work

    Technology and the Changing Nature of Work

    The Fourth Industrial Revolution – Automation and Workforce Diversity


    Technology as a Disruptor

    The "Reskilling" Challenge

    Predicting Reskilling Needs

    Today’s Skills Gap

    Can the Humans Do It?

    Assessing Human Capital

    High Touch in a High-Tech World

    Decomposing Jobs and Skills Inventories

    Interoperable Learning Record

    Temporary Work

    Remote Work

    Automation and the Changing Nature of Work

    Chapter 3: The Changing Nature of the Employment Contract

    Professor William Garrison

    The Current Employment Contract

    Employee Engagement – Time for Change

    Baby Boomer Loyalty and the Promise of a Pension

    Gen X – The Individual That Cannot Be Defined But Still Wants Paradise

    The Millennial Experience!

    Millennial Mindset and The Happiness Formula

    Gen Z and the Quest for Stability and Relationships

    Attracting and Retaining Talent in a Diverse World of Work

    Great Place to Work for Millennials

    Top Industries for Gen Z

    Structure and Formation of New Employment Contract

    Option 1: Traditional Approach

    Option 2: Contractor Approach

    Option 3: Purpose-Driven Approach

    Millennials and Gen Z are the Future of the Workforce

    Final Thoughts on Managing Millennials and Gen Z Workers

    Chapter 4: The Changing Nature of Workforces and Employment Categories

    Professor William Garrison

    Workforce Definitions

    Unemployment Categories

    Current Workforce Terms and What’s Missing



    Unpaid Family Employees

    "Gig Workers"

    Labor Force by Age

    Current Employment Categories

    Why They are Becoming Obsolete

    Grey-Collar Work: Why Blue-Collar and White-Collar Labels are No Longer


    New Employment Categories

    Contingent Worker

    Flexible Worker

    "Gig Worker"

    Opportunities and Benefits of New Employment Structure

    Chapter 5: The Changing Nature of Employee Relations and Working Conditions

    Professor William Garrison

    Current Employee Relations

    Motivation Theories

    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1943)

    Equity Theory (1963)

    Herzberg’s Two-Factory Theory (1964)

    Expectancy Theory (1964)

    Goal-Setting Theory (1968)

    Self-Determination Theory (1985)

    Five Sources of Power

    Boss-Subordinate Relationship

    Hierarchical Structure

    Organizational Structures and Strives Towards Improving Employee Relations

    Functional Org Charts

    Divisional Org Charts

    Matrix Systems

    Project Management & Special Assignments

    Flattening the Org Chart

    Current Working Conditions

    Role of Unions

    Role of OSHA

    Role of Technology & AI Systems

    Administrative Functions of Management Now Performed by Software

    Management Dashboards

    Tyranny of the Metrics

    International Business – Reducing Travel

    Air Travel Has Changed

    Technology for Flying After Corona


    Virtual Teams

    Remote Work Before Corona

    Remote Work After Corona

    Chapter 6: Managing Human Resources in the "Gig Economy"

    Professor William Garrison and Dr. Bashker Biswas

    Who are "Gig Workers"?

    "Gig Worker" Mindset

    The Strategic Importance of "Gig Workers"

    Human Resources Processes Need to be Different

    "Gig Worker" Employment Contracts and Legal Status

    "Gig Workers" and Human Capital Acquisition (Staffing) Processes

    "Gig Worker" Compensation and Benefits

    Performance-based Pay for "Gig Workers"

    Early Delivery Bonus

    Cost Savings Bonus

    Quality Bonus

    Retention Bonus

    Consultation Stipend

    "Gig Worker" Training and Development

    Online e-Learning Portals

    Modified Employee Relations for "Gig Workers"

    Integrating "Gig Workers" into the Company Culture

    How HR Can Benefit from "Gig Workers"

    Chapter 7: Managing the Remote Employee

    Dr. Robert Ramirez

    Benefits of a Remote Workforce

    Challenges of Remote Working

    Remote Issue #1 – Lack of Face-to-Face Supervision

    Remote Issue #2 – Lack of Access to Information

    Remote Issue #3 – Social Isolation

    Remote Issue #4 – Work from Home Distractions

    Strategies for Managing the Remote Employee

    Strategy #1 – Clarify Goals

    Strategy #2 – Schedule Regular Virtual Meetings

    Strategy #3 – Humanize Good Communication, Not Products

    Strategy #4 – Help the New Work Environment to Become the Norm

    Strategy #5 – Track your Employee’s Progress

    Strategy #6 – Increase Employee Recognition

    Work from Home Software for the Remote Employee

    Chapter 8: Corporate Cultures in the Digital Age

    Dr. Robert Ramirez

    Corporate Cultures and Cultural Intelligence in the Digital Age

    National Cultural Differences

    Workplace Involvement

    Global Collaboration and Cultural Intelligence

    Multigenerational Workforce

    Corporate Culture and Religion

    Avoiding Ethnocentrism and Prejudice

    Corporate Culture Evolution from the Industrial Revolution

    The First Industrial Revolution – The Manufacturing Age

    The Second Industrial Revolution – The Technological Revolution

    The Third Industrial Revolution – The Information Age

    Today’s Fourth Industrial Revolution – The Digital Age

    Corporate Culture Disruptors of The Digital Age

    Digital Communities

    Digital Collaboration with "Gig Workers" and Contractors

    Globalization and a Diverse Workforce

    Cultural Intelligence – The Key to Thriving in The Digital Age

    Early Culture and Intelligence Theory

    Multidimensional Construct Theory

    Current Cultural Intelligence Theory

    Generations in the Workforce Theory

    New Opportunities for H.R. Professionals

    Building High-Performance Teams (Virtual Teams)

    Managing the Digital Environment

    Solutions and Problem Solving

    How to Recognize, Avoid, and Stop Stereotype Biases and Threats

    Recommendations for Practice

    Recommendation #1 – Help Your Workforce Explore their Own Cultural Beliefs

    Recommendation #2 – Help Your Workforce Understand Other Cultures

    Recommendation #3 – Help Your Workforce by Using Reverse Mentoring

    Recommendation #4 – Help Your Workforce by Using C.Q. Assessment Tools

    Succeeding in Today’s Global Marketplace

    Chapter 9: Organizational Behavior in The Digital Age

    Dr. Robert Ramirez

    Organizational Behavior

    Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)

    Pre-Digital Era Theories Leading to the Current Motivational Theories

    Taylor Scientific Management Theory

    Elton May and the Hawthorne Studies

    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory

    Herzberg’s Motivating Factors Theory

    Motivation in The Digital Age

    Leadership Theories Before The Digital Age

    Autocratic Leadership

    Participative (Democratic) Leadership

    Free-Rein Leadership

    Leadership in The Digital Age

    Advantages of a Flat Organizational Structure

    Chapter 10: Green Human Resource Management

    Professor William Garrison

    A Rose by Any Other Name

    "Earth Day and the Polling of America"

    Could Business Leaders Be the Solution?

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and The Green Movement

    Earth-Friendly Practices

    Environmental Management Systems (EMS)

    Why EMS is Not Enough and What Needs to Change

    Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) Rating

    Why HR is the Home of Green

    Green HR Framework

    How Green HRM Improves Employee Engagement and Retention

    Support of Senior Management

    Chapter 11: Employees as Owners

    Dr. Bashker Biswas

    Reviving Industrial Democracy

    A Historical Perspective

    Labor-Management Collaboration

    The "Ascendancy of the Common Man"

    The Cooperative Movement

    Industrial Democracy in America

    The Death of Industrial Democracy

    A Second Look

    Employee Stock Ownership Programs

    The History of Employee Ownership

    Employee Ownership Basics

    Benefits of Employee Ownership

    How Common is Employee Ownership?

    What is a Gain-Sharing Plan?

    The Scanlon Plan

    The Rucker Plan

    Advantages and Disadvantages of Gain-Sharing Plans

    Chapter 12: Managing Rewards in the Digital Age

    Dr. Bashker Biswas

    Traditional Compensation

    Base Salary

    Incentive Compensation

    Equity Compensation

    Sales Compensation

    Expatriate Compensation

    Risk Benefits

    Retirement Benefits


    Current Practices That Do Not Work in the Digital Age

    Issues with Job Evaluation Compensation

    Issues with Market Pay

    Issues with Performance Pay

    The Need for Change

    The Impact of Digital Technology on Reward Systems

    Design of Pay Frameworks

    The Career Model

    The Market Model

    The Retention Model

    The Contribution Model

    Redesigning Executive Compensation

    Chapter 13: The Human Cloud

    Dr. Bashker Biswas

    The Human Cloud

    Human Cloud Service Arrangements

    Geographical Flexibility

    Management and Administrative Efficiency

    Elements of the Human Cloud


    Online Work Services

    Online Staffing Platforms

    The Evolution of the Human Cloud

    The Facilitator Model

    The Arbitrator Model

    The Aggregator Model

    The Governor Model

    Key Human Capital Concerns and Issues in the Context of the Human Cloud

    Keeping Quality in Check

    Project Failure and Intellectual Property Leakage Concerns

    What Will Happen Next?

    Chapter 14: The Obsolete Labor Laws

    Dr. Bashker Biswas

    The First Angle: Enhancing Labor Unions

    Collective Bargaining

    The Obsolete Laws

    The Second Angle: Update Union Wins or Eliminate Them

    Industrial Era Labor Laws are Less Attractive to Workers

    Merging of Management and Worker Roles

    The United States Congress and the RAISE Act

    Updating Working Conditions Legislation

    AB5 in California

    Labor Law Implications for the Post-Covid Work Environment

    Chapter 15: People Analytics and Measurements

    Dr. Bashker Biswas

    Current Trends in Data Analytics

    Human Resource Analytics

    What is HR Analytics?

    The History of HR Analytics

    The Saratoga Institute Initiative

    HR Analytics and Measurements Explained

    The Benefits of HR Analytics

    Latest HR Metrics

    Turnover Forecasts

    Employee Engagement

    Diversity Hiring Rate

    Strategic Management Metrics

    Improving Your Talent Process with HR Analytics

    Exit Surveys

    HR Analytics Software

    An HR Analytics Example: Analyzing the Financial Impact of Employee Engagement

    HR Analytics Dashboard

    Predictive HR Analytics Trends

    HR Measurements

    Human Resource Metrics Data Comparison

    Chapter 16: The Human Asset Lifecycle Model (HALM)©

    Dr. Bashker Biswas

    The Case for Change

    The Era of Human Asset Capital Management

    The Human Element of Labor: Costs or Expenses?

    A Fleeting Intangible Asset

    The Human Asset Lifecycle Model (HALM)©

    Closing Remarks


    Bashker "Bob" Biswas, Ph.D., is a senior professor at DeVry University/Keller Graduate School of Management.

    William Garrison, M.Ed., MBA, is a professor and an online faculty chair at DeVry University and Keller Graduate School of Management.

    Robert L. Ramirez is an award-winning professor of International Business and faculty chair at DeVry University and Keller Graduate School of Management.