In the 1960s, the governments of Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia launched agricultural settlement programs in each country’s vast Amazonian frontier lowlands. Two decades later, these exact same zones had transformed into the centers of the illicit cocaine boom of the Americas. Drawing on concepts from both history and anthropology, The Origins of Cocaine explores how three countries with divergent different mid-century political trajectories ended up with parallel outcomes in illicit frontier economies and cocalero cultures. Bringing together transnational, national, and local analyses, the volume provides an in-depth examination of the deep origins of drug economics in the Americas. As the first substantial study on the shift from agrarian colonization to narcotization, The Origins of Cocaine will appeal to scholars and postgraduate students of Latin American history, anthropology, globalization, development and environmental studies.
1. Introduction: Orphans of Development: The Unanticipated Rise of Illicit Coca in the Amazon Andes, 1950-1990 Paul Gootenberg
2. The Ghosts of Development Past: Deforestation and Coca in Western Amazonia Liliana M. Dávalos
3. Ideas of Modernization and Territorial Transformation in the Rise of Coca: The Case of the Upper Huallaga Valley, Peru Hernán Manrique and Maritza Paredes
4. Creating Coca Frontiers and cocaleros in Chapare: Bolivia, 1940 to 1990 Andrew C. Millington
5. Economic Development Policies in Colombia (1960s-1990s) and the Turn to Coca in the Andes Amazon Jennifer S. Holmes, Viveca Pavón, and Sheila Amin Gutiérrez de Piñeres
6. ‘The Making of a Coca Frontier: The Case of Ariari, Colombia María-Clara Torres
7. Epilogue: Will Governments Confront Coca Cultivation, or its Causes? Adam Isacson